Biology Applications Review Questions Biology Review Questions Chapter 6 1. A cat eats a bird, which earlier ate a caterpillar that chewed on a weed. Which organisms are autotrophs? Which are the heterotrophs? 2. Summarize the photosynthesis reactions as an equation. Name where each stage takes place inside a chloroplast.

Photosynthesis

An Overview Where the Reactions Take Place Both stages of photosynthesis occur in the chloroplast. The semifluid interior (stroma) is the site for the second series of photosynthesis reactions. Flattened sacs, thylakoids, interconnected by channels weave through the stroma; the first reactions occur here. There are two series of reactions: The light-dependent reactions convert light energy to chemical energy, which is stored in ATP and NADPH; water is split. The light-independent reactions assemble sugars and other organic molecules using ATP and NADPH as energy sources. Overall, for glucose formation: sunlight 12H2O + 6CO2 �����> 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O

3. What is the function of ATP in photosynthesis? What is the function of NADPH? The Light-Dependent Reactions Three events are involved: 1. Pigments absorb light energy and give up electrons. 2. Water molecules are split; ATP and NADPH form; oxygen is released. 3. Electrons are replaced in the pigment molecules that first gave them up. The Light-Independent Reactions These reactions constitute a pathway known as the Calvin-Benson cycle. 1. The participants and their roles in the synthesis of carbohydrates are: a. ATP, which provides energy. b. NADPH, which provides hydrogen atoms and electrons. c. Atmospheric air, which provides the carbon and oxygen from carbon dioxide. 2. The reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplasts and are not dependent on sunlight. 4. Which of the following pigments are most visible in a maple leaf in summer? Which become the most visible in autumn? a. chlorophylls c. anthocyanins b. phycobillins d. carotenoids 5. How does chlorophyll a differ in function from accessory pigments during the light dependent reactions? Pigment molecules on the thylakoid membranes absorb photons. Chlorophyll pigments absorb blue and red but transmit green (leaves). Carotenoid pigments absorb violet and blue but transmit yellow, orange, and red. 6. Fill in figure 6.18 for the light dependent reactions. 7. With respect to the light dependent reactions how do the cyclic and non cyclic pathways of electron flow differ? Cyclic and Noncyclic Electron Flow In the cyclic pathway of ATP formation, electrons are first excited, pass through an electron transport system, and then return to the orig�inal photosystem. This photosystem is characterized by the presence of chlorophyll P700. The cyclic pathway is an ancient way to make ATP from ADP; it was used by early bacteria. The noncyclic pathway of ATP formation transfers electrons through two photosystems and two electron transport systems (ETS) simultaneously. One pathway begins when chlorophyll P680 in photosystem II absorbs energy. Boosted electron moves through a transport system, which releases energy for ADP + Pi ��> ATP. Electron from photolysis of water fills �electron hole� left in P680 and produces oxygen by-product. 8. What substance does not take part in the Calvin Benson cycle ATP, NADPH, RuBP, carentoids, o2, CO2, or enzymes? The Light-Independent Reactions These reactions constitute a pathway known as the Calvin-Benson cycle. The participants and their roles in the synthesis of carbohydrates are: ATP, which provides energy. NADPH, which provides hydrogen atoms and electrons. Atmospheric air, which provides the carbon and oxygen from carbon dioxide. The reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplasts and are not dependent on sunlight. Do Plants Capture Carbon Carbon dioxide diffuses into a leaf, across the plasma membrane of a photosynthetic cell, and into the stroma of a chloroplast. Rubisco joins carbon dioxide to RuBP to produce an unstable intermediate that splits to form two molecules of PGA. How Do Plants Build Glucose? Each PGA then receives a Pi from ATP plus H+ and electrons from NADPH to form PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde). Most of the PGAL molecules continue in the cycle to fix more carbon dioxide, but two PGAL join to form a sugar-phosphate, which will be modified to sucrose, starch, and cellulose. 9. Fill in the blanks for figure 6.19. Which substances are the original sources of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms used in the synthesis of glucose in the Calvin Benson cycle? 10. On hot dry days oxygen from photosynthesis accumulates in leaves. Explain why and explain what happens in C3 plants versus C4 plants A. C4 Plants Plants in hot, dry environments close their stomata to conserve water, but in so doing retard carbon dioxide entry and permit oxygen buildup inside the leaves. oxygen�not carbon dioxide� becomes attached to RuBP to yield one PGA (instead of two) and one phosphoglycolate (not useful); this unproductive process is called photorespiration. To overcome this fate, crabgrass, sugarcane, corn, and other plants fix carbon twice to produce oxaloacetate, a four-carbon, compound which can then donate the carbon dioxide to the Calvin-Benson cycle. These plants are called C4 plants. CAM Plants In desert plants opening the stomata in the daytime would allow too much water to escape. Instead, they open the stomata at night and fix CO2 in the form of crassulacean acid for use the next day in carbohydrate synthesis. These plants are known as CAM plants. 11. Are photoautotrophs the only self feeders? If not give examples and where you might find them?

Biology Chapter 7 Review Questions 1. Is this true or false. Aerobic respiration occurs in animals but not plants, which make ATP only by photosynthesis. 2. Using the diagram below of the aerobic pathway fill in the blanks with the number of molecules of pyruvate, coenzymes, and end products. Write in the net ATP formed in each stage then the net ATP formed from start glycolysis to finish. The end products of glycolysis are: two pyruvates, two ATP (net gain), and two NADH for each glucose molecule degraded. Second Stage of the Aerobic Pathway Preparatory Steps and the Krebs Cycle Pyruvate enters the mitochondria, one carbon is removed and the two-carbon fragment joins coenzyme A. Acetyl CoA then joins oxaloacetate already present from a previous �turn� of the cycle. Functions of the Second Stage H+ and e� are transferred to NAD+ and FAD to become NADH and FADH2, respectively.. Two molecules of ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. Most of the molecules are recycled to conserve oxaloacetate for continuous process�ing of acetyl-CoA. 3. Is glycolysis energy requiring or energy releasing? Or do both kinds of reactions occur during glycolysis? Glucose is first phosphorylated in energy-requiring steps, then split to form two molecules of PGAL. All energy-releasing pathways begin with the glycolysis reactions, which occur in the cytoplasm. 4. In what respect does electron transport phosphorylation differ from substrate level phosphorylation? Third Stage of the Aerobic Pathway Electron Transport Phosphorylation NADH and FADH2 give up their electrons to transport (enzyme) systems embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. H+ are released into the outer compartment of the mitochondrion. As H+ flow back into the inner compartment, ATP synthases form ATP from ADP and unbound phosphate. Oxygen joins with the �spent� electrons and H+ to yield water. Glycolysis: First Stage of Energy-Releasing Pathways Enzymes in the cytoplasm catalyze several steps in glucose breakdown. Glucose is first phosphorylated in energy-requiring steps, then split to form two molecules of PGAL. Enzymes remove H+ and electrons from PGAL to change NAD+ to NADH (which is used later in electron transport). By substrate-level phosphorylation, four ATPs are produced. The end products of glycolysis are: two pyruvates, two ATP (net gain), and two NADH for each glucose molecule degraded. 5. Sketch the double membrane system of the mitchochondrion and show where electron transport systems and ATP synthases are located. Summary of the Energy Harvest Electron transport yields thirty-two ATP; glycolysis yields two ATP; Krebs yields two ATP, for a grand total of thirty-six ATP per glucose molecule. When energy is transferred from glucose to ATP, the efficiency is about 40%. 6. Name the compound that is the entry point for the Krebs cycle and state whether it directly accepts the pyruvate from glycolysis. For each glucose molecule how many carbon atoms enter the Kreb's cycle? How many depart from it, and in what form? Yes. Anaerobic Routes of ATP Formation Fermentation Pathways Anaerobic pathways operate when oxygen is absent (or limited); pyruvate from glycolysis is metabolized to produce molecules other than acetyl-CoA. There is a net yield of two ATPs and NAD+ is regenerated. Lactate Fermentation Pyruvate molecules are converted to lactate. Certain bacteria can sour milk and make it undrinkable but other bacteria have been used commercially to produce cheese, yogurt, and sauerkraut. When muscle cells are very active, they convert to producing lactate temporarily. 7. Is this statement true or false? Muscle cells cannot contract at all when deprived of oxygen. If true explain why? If false name the alternatives available to them?

Biology Chapter 8 Review Questions 1. Define mitosis and meiosis two mechanisms that operate in eukaryotic cells. Does either one divide the cytoplasm? 2. Define somatic cell and germ cell? All somatic cells of a particular species have the same number of chromosomes; example: humans have forty-six. Chromosomes come in pairs�one member from each parent. Chromosome pairs carry genes for the same traits. Chromosome number (n) tells how many of each type of chromosome is present in a cell; 2n is diploid. 3. What are chromosomal proteins? Give an example and briefly state how it interacts with a DNA molecule? 4. What is a chromosome called when it is in the unduplicated state? In the duplicated state with two sister chromatids? 5. Describe the microtubular spindle and its functions. What role do motor proteins play in its operation? 6. Using the diagram above as a guide name and describe the key features of the stages of mitosis? Mitosis Proceeds Through Four Stages Major changes in mitosis proceed through four stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Chromosomes are moved by a spindle apparatus composed of two sets of microtubules that extend from each pole (centriole) of the cell and overlap at the equator. Mitosis Prophase: Mitosis Begins 1. Chromosomes (already duplicated during interphase) become visible as rodlike units, each consisting of two sister chromatids joined at the centromere. 2. Nuclear membrane breaks up; spindle forms. 3. Microtubules move one pair of centrioles to opposite pole of the cell. B. Transition to Metaphase 1. Sister chromatids become oriented toward opposite poles. 2. When all the chromosomes are aligned at the cell�s equator halfway between the poles, the cell is said to be in metaphase. C. From Anaphase Through Telophase 1. Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles. 2. Now each chromatid is an independent (daughter chromosome) chromosome. 3. Telophase begins when chromosomes arrive at the poles. 4. The nuclear envelope forms from the fusion of small vesicles; mitosis is complete. D. At the conclusion of mitosis, each new cell has the same chromosome number as the parent nucleus. 7. Briefly explain how cytoplasmic division differs between a typical plant cell and typical animal cell? Division of the Cytoplasm Cell Plate Formation in Plants Plant cells form a cell plate (cellulose) that separates the two new cells. Vesicles containing building materials fuse with one another to form the disklike cell plate between the two new cells. Cytoplasmic Division of Animal Cells In animal cells, cleavage furrow on the outer surface indicates that two new cells are forming. Contractile microfilaments pull the plasma membrane inward.

Biology Chapter 9 Review Questions 1. The diploid chromosome numbers for the somatic cells of a few organisms are listed below. How many chromosomes will end up in the gametes of each organism? Fruit fly Garden pea Corn Frog 2. A diploid germ cell has four pairs of homologous chromosomes designated AA, BB, CC, DD. How would the chromosomes of the gametes be designated? Meiosis begins with diploid (2n = 46) germ cells and produces haploid gametes (n = 23). In 2n cells there are two chromosomes of each type, called homologous chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes line up (even unequally matched sex chromosomes!) during meiosis. Meiosis produces gametes that have one of each pair of homologous chromosomes, i.e., they are haploid. Two Divisions, Not One In some ways meiosis resembles mitosis: The chromosomes are duplicated during interphase to form sister chromosomes held together at the centromere. Chromosomes are moved by the microtubules of the spindle apparatus. Unlike mitosis, meiosis has two series of divisions�meiosis I and II. During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair and the cytoplasm divides later. Each of the two daughter cells receives a haploid number of chromosomes. Each chromosome is still duplicated. In meiosis II, the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate; the cytoplasm divides again, resulting in four haploid cells. 3. Look at the chromosomes in the germ cell in the diagram. Is this cell at anaphase 1 or anaphase II? Homologous chromosomes pair up. Nonsister chromatids exchange segments in a process called crossing over. Because alleles for the same trait can vary, new combinations of genes in each chro�mosome can result; this is one source of genetic variation. Crossing over leads to genetic recombination. Metaphase I Alignments During metaphase I, homologous chromosomes randomly line up at the spindle equator. During anaphase I, homologous chromosomes (still duplicated) separate into two hap�loid cells, each of which has a random mix of maternal and paternal chromosomes. 4. Define meiosis and describe its stages? In what respects is meiosis not like mitosis? Meiosis and Mitosis Compared Mitotic cell division produces clones; this type of division is common in single-celled, asexually reproduc�ing organisms and in the growth process of multicelled forms. Meiosis occurs only in the germ cells used in sexual reproduction; it gives rise to novel combinations of alleles in offspring. 5. What is the name for the alternative forms of the same gene? 6. Outline the main steps in which gametes form in plants? Do the same for gamete formation in animals? A. Gamete Formation in Plants Events such as spore formation may occur between meiosis and gamete formation. Haploid spores germinate into haploid gamete-producing bodies. Gamete-producing bodies and spore-producing bodies develop during the life cycle of plants. Gamete Formation in Animals In males, meiosis and gamete formation are called spermatogenesis. Germ cell (2n) ��> primary spermatocyte (2n) ��> MEIOSIS I ��> two secondary sperma�tocytes (n) ��> MEIOSIS II ��> four spermatids (n). Spermatids change in form; each develops a tail to become a mature sperm. In females, meiosis and gamete formation are called oogenesis. Germ cell (2n) ��> primary oocyte (2n) ��> MEIOSIS I ��> secondary oocyte (n, and large in size) plus polar body (n, and small in size) ��> MEIOSIS II ��> one large ovum (n) plus three polar bodies (n, small). The single ovum is the only cell capable of being fertilized by a sperm; the polar bodies wither and die. 7. Genetically what is the key difference between the outcomes of sexual and asexual reproduction? In asexual reproduction, one parent passes a duplicate of its genes (DNA molecules) to its off�spring, which can only be genetically identical clones of the parent. In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes one gene for each trait. Genes for each trait come in slightly different forms called alleles, originally produced by mutations. Meiosis shuffles the alleles during gamete formation, and fertilization produces offspring with unique combinations of alleles. The variation generated by sexual reproduction is the testing ground for natural selection and is the basis for evolutionary change.

Biology Chapter 10 Review Questions 1. Distinguish between these terms. a. gene and allele b. dominant allele and recessive allele c. homozygote and heterozygote d. genotype and phenotype Genes carry encoded information about specific traits. Each gene has a locus on a chromosome. Diploid cells have two genes (a gene pair) for each trait�each on a homologous chromosome. Alleles are various molecular forms of a gene for the same trait. If homozygous, both alleles are the same. If heterozygous, the alleles differ. When heterozygous, one allele is dominant (A), and the other is recessive (a). Homozygous dominant = AA, homozygous recessive = aa, and heterozygous = Aa. Genotype is the sum of the genes, and phenotype is how the genes are expressed. 2. Define a true breeding lineage. What is a hybrid? This plant can fertilize itself; true-breeding varieties were available to Mendel. Peas can also be cross-fertilized by human manipulation of the pollen. Mendel cross-fertilized true-breeding garden pea plants having clearly contrasting traits (example: white versus purple flowers). 3. Distinquish between monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, testcross. Monohybrid crosses have two parents that are true-breeding for contrasting forms of a trait. One form of the trait disappears in the first generation (F1), only to show up in the second generation. We now know that all members of the first generation are heterozygous because one par�ent could produce only an A gamete and the other could produce only an a gamete. Results of the F2 generation required mathematical analysis. he numerical ratios of crosses suggested that genes do not blend. For example, the F2 offspring showed a 3:1 phenotypic ratio. each sperm has an equal probability of fertilizing an egg. This can be seen most easily by using the Punnett square. each new plant has three chances in four of having at least one dominant allele. The Mendelian theory of segregation states that diploid organisms inherit two genes per trait, and each gene segregates from the other during meiosis such that each gamete will receive only one gene per trait. Testcrosses To support his concept of segregation, Mendel crossed F1 plants with homozygous reces�sive individuals. A 1:1 ratio of recessive and dominant phenotypes supports his hypothesis. Predicting Outcomes of Dihybrid Crosses Mendel also performed experiments involving two traits�a dihybrid cross. Mendel correctly predicted that all F1 plants would show both of the dominant alleles (example: all purple flowers and all tall plants). Mendel wondered if the genes for flower color and plant height would travel together when two F1 plants were crossed. The F2 results showed 9/16 were tall and purple-flowered and 1/16 were dwarf and white-flowered�as were the original parents; however, there were 3/16 each of two new combinations: dwarf purple-flowered and tall white-flowered. The Theory in Modern Form We now know that genes located on nonhomologous chromosomes segregate independently of each other and give the same phenotypic ratio as Mendel observed: 9:3:3:1. The Mendelian theory of independent assortment states that each gene of a pair tends to assort into gametes independently of other gene pairs located on nonhomologous chromosomes. Incomplete Dominance, This is condition in which the dominant allele cannot completely mask the expression of another For example: red-flowered snapdragons crossed with white ones yield pink. ABO Blood Types: A Case of Codominance In codominance, both alleles are expressed in heterozygotes . Blood type is determined by markers produced by three genes�a multiple allele system. IA and IB are each dominant to i, but are codominant to each other. Therefore, some persons can express both genes and have AB blood. 4. Do segregation and independent assortment occur in mitosis, meiosis or both? both. 5. What do the vertical and horizontal arrows of the diagram represent? What do the bars and curved line represent?

Biology Chapter 11 Review Questions 1. What is a gene? What are alleles? Genes are units of information about heritable traits, with particular locations on particular chromosomes. In humans, one homolog of each chromosome is inherited from each parent. Pairs of chromosomes that are similar in structure and function are called homologous chromosomes. Alleles are slightly different forms of the same gene. Gene exchange between homologs is called crossing over resulting in genetic recombination. Independent assortment refers to the random alignment of each pair of homologous chromosomes at metaphase I of meiosis. 2. Distinguish between a. homologous and nonhomologous chromosomes. b. sex chromosomes and autosomes. c. karyotype and karyotype diagram. Pairs of chromosomes that are similar in structure and function are called homologous chromosomes. Independent assortment refers to the random alignment of each pair of homologous chromosomes at metaphase I of meiosis. Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes Gender is determined by sex chromosomes. Human females have two X chromosomes. Human males have one X and one Y chromosome. All nonsex-determining genes are the same in males and females and are called autosomes. Karyotype analysis reveals: All normal human eggs carry only one X chromosome. Half of the sperm carry an X, the other half carry a Y. 3. Define genetic recombination and describe how crossing over can bring it about? The older term "sex-linked genes" has been replaced with more precise terms: X-linked genes and Y-linked genes. Several linked genes on each type of chromosome is called a linkage group. Crossing Over and Genetic Recombination Linkage can be disrupted by crossing over. Crossing over is an exchange of parts of homologous chromosomes. The probability that crossing over will lead to the separation of two genes on a chro�mosome is proportional to the distance between them; that is, the farther apart two genes are, the greater their frequency of crossing over. Crossing over introduces variations in genotypes and phenotypes and provides for the selection process necessary to evolution. 4. Define pedigree. Explain the difference between genetic abnormality and genetic disorder using examples. Constructing Pedigrees Human genetics is difficult to study. We live under variable conditions in diverse environments. Humans mate by chance and may, or may not, choose to reproduce. Humans live as long as those who study them. The small family size characteristic of human beings is not sufficient for meaningful statistical analysis. The analysis of family pedigrees provides data on inheritance patterns through several gen�erations. Regarding Human Genetic Disorders Genetic abnormality is a term applied to a genetic condition that is a deviation from the usual, or average, and is not life-threatening. Genetic disorder is more appropriately used to describe conditions that cause medical problems. A syndrome is a recognized set of symptoms that characterize a given disorder. A disease is illness caused by infectious, dietary, or environmental factors. 5. Contrast a typical pattern of autosomal recessive inheritance with that of autosomal dominant inheritance. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance Either parent can carry the recessive allele on an autosome. Heterozygotes are symptom-free; homozygotes are affected. Two heterozygous parents have a 50% chance of producing heterozygous children and a 25% chance of a homozygous recessive child. When both parents are homozy�gous, all children can be affected. Galactosemia (the inability to metabolize lactose) is an example of autosomal recessive inheritance in which a single gene mutation prevents manufacture of an enzyme needed in the conversion pathway. Autosomal Dominant Inheritance A dominant allele is always expressed and if it reduces the chance of surviving or reproducing, its frequency should decrease; mutations and postreproductive onset work against this hypothesis. Achondroplasia (dwarfism) is a benign abnormality, but Huntington disorder is serious degeneration of the nervous system with an onset from age 40 onward. 6. Describe two clues that often show up when a recessive allele on a X chromosome causes a genetic disorder. X-Linked Recessive Inheritance X-linked recessive inheritance has these characteristics: The mutated gene occurs only on the X chromosome. Heterozygous females are phenotypically normal; males are affected because they have only one allele for the trait (on the X chromosome) and it can be recessive. A normal male mated with a female heterozygote has a 50% chance of producing carrier daughters and a 50% chance of producing affected sons. In the case of a homozygous female and a normal male, all daughters will be carriers and all sons affected. Color blindness is an example of an X-linked recessive trait that is not very serious at all. A serious X-linked recessive condition is hemophilia A, the inability of the blood to clot because the genes do not code for the necessary clotting agent(s). Fragile X syndrome is a recessive disorder that causes mental retardation in males. 7. Distinguish among a chromosomal deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation. Major Categories of Structural Change An inversion alters the position and sequence of the genes so that gene order is reversed. A translocation occurs when a part of one chromosome is transferred to a nonhomologous chromosome; an example is a form of cancer where a segment of chromosome #22 is on #9 (Philadelphia chromosome). A deletion is the loss of a chromosome region by viral attack, chemicals, irradiation, or other environmental factors; for example, the loss of a portion of chromosome #5 causes a disorder called cri-du-chat. Duplication occurs when a gene sequence is in excess of the normal amount. 8. Define aneuploidy and polyploidy. Make a simple sketch of an example of nondisjunction. Aneuploidy, one extra or one less chromosome, may affect one of every two newly fertilized eggs. Polyploidy, three or more of each chromosome, is common in plants but is lethal to the zygote if it occurs in humans. Nondisjunction at anaphase I or anaphase II frequently results in a change in chromosome number. If a gamete with an extra chromosome (n + 1) joins a normal gamete at fertil�ization, the diploid cell will be 2n + 1; this condition is called trisomy. If an abnormal gamete is missing a chromosome, the zygote will be 2n � 1: monosomy.

Biology Chapter 12 Review Questions 1. Name the three molecular parts of a nucleotide in a DNA. Also name the four different bases in these nucleotides. DNA is composed of four kinds of nucleotides, each of which consists of: a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and one of four bases�adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), cytosine (C). The nucleotides are similar, but T and C are single-ring pyrimidines; A and G are double-ring purines. Edwin Chargaff in 1949 showed that the amount of A = T and G = C. Rosalind Franklin used X-ray diffraction techniques to produce images of DNA molecules. DNA exists as a long, thin molecule of uniform diameter. Nucleotides are joined along the molecule�s length; sugar-phosphate linkages form a sort of �backbone.� Patterns of Base Pairing DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides twisted into a double helix. Base pairs are formed by the hydrogen bonding of A with T, and G with C; this is constant for all species. The sequence of bases in a nucleotide strand is different from species to species. 2. What kind of bond joins two DNA strands in a double helix? DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides twisted into a double helix. Base pairs are formed by the hydrogen bonding of A with T, and G with C; this is constant for all species. The sequence of bases in a nucleotide strand is different from species to species. 3. Which nucleotide base pairs with adenine? With guanine? 4. Explain how DNA molecules can show both constancy and variation from one species to the next. DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides twisted into a double helix. Base pairs are formed by the hydrogen bonding of A with T, and G with C; this is constant for all species. The sequence of bases in a nucleotide strand is different from species to species.

Biology Chapter 13 Review Questions 1. Are the polypeptide chains of proteins assembled on DNA? If so state how, if not state how they are assembled and on which molecules? DNA is like a book of instructions written in the alphabet of A, T, G, and C, but merely knowing the letters does not tell us how the genes work. It takes two processes�transcription and translation�plus a critical role played by RNA to synthesize proteins. In transcription, molecules of RNA are produced on the DNA templates in the nucleus. In translation, RNA are molecules shipped from the nucleus to the cytoplasm to be used in polypeptide assembly. 2. Name the three classes of RNA and state the function of each class in protein synthesis. The Three Classes of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the �blueprint� to the ribosome. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) combines with proteins to form ribosomes upon which polypep�tides are assembled. Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome and pairs up with an mRNA code for that amino acid. 3. The pre m RNA transcipts of eukaryotic cells contain both introns and exrons. Are the introns or exons snipped out before the transcripts leave the nucleus? Yes because Newly formed mRNA is modified by the addition of a cap to the 5' end a �start� signal for protein synthesis and a poly-A tail to the 3' end. Additionally, the mRNA transcript must be edited. The introns (noncoding portions) are removed before the transcript leaves the nucleus. Only the exons and portions that will eventually be translated remain in the finished transcript that leaves the nucleus. 4. Distinguish between codon and anticodon. Both DNA and its mRNA transcript are linear sequences of nucleotides carrying the hereditary code. Every three bases (a triplet) specifies an amino acid to be included into a growing polypeptide chain; this is called the genetic code. The genetic code consists of sixty-one triplets that specify amino acids and three that serve to stop protein synthesis. Each base triplet in RNA is called a codon. With few exceptions, the genetic code is universal for all forms of life. Structure and Function of tRNA and rRNA Translation occurs on the surface of ribosomes (rRNA + proteins) composed of two subunits that unite during translation. Each kind of tRNA has an anticodon that is complementary to an mRNA codon and also carries one specific amino acid. After the mRNA arrives in the cytoplasm, an anticodon on a tRNA bonds to the codon on the mRNA, and thus a correct amino acid is brought into place. 5. Name the three stages of translation. Briefly describe the key events of each stage. Stages of Translation 1. In initiation, a complex forms in this sequence: initiator tRNA + small ribosomal subunit + mRNA + large ribosomal subunit. 2. In elongation, a start codon on mRNA defines the reading frame; a series of tRNAs deliver amino acids in sequence by codon-anticodon matching; a peptide bond joins each amino acid to the next in sequence. 3. With termination, a stop codon is reached and the polypeptide chain is released into the cytoplasm or enters the cytomembrane system for further processing. 6. Define gene mutation. Give examples of three agents that cause mutations. A gene mutation is a change in one to several bases that may be added, deleted, or replaced in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Common Gene Mutations and Their Sources An example of a spontaneous mutation is sickle-cell anemia, which is the result of a single base pair substitution which places valine as the sixth amino acid in the hemoglobin chain instead of glutamate. In a "frameshift mutation," there may be an insertion or deletion of several base pairs causing a misreading of the mRNA during translation. A rather dramatic mutation is that of transposable elements, which are regions of DNA that �jump� to new loca�tions in DNA. Causes of Gene Mutations 1. Many gene mutations are spontaneous. 2. Others are caused by mutagens such as UV light, ionizing radiation, and alkylating agents. The Proof Is in the Protein Spontaneous mutations are rare and will not endure unless they occur in gametes. A protein that is specified by a heritable mutation may have harmful, neutral, or beneficial effects on an individual's ability to function in the prevailing environment. 7. Do all mutations arise spontaneously? Are environmental agents always the trigger for mutations? No. Many gene mutations are spontaneous. 8. Define and then state the possible outcomes of the following types of mutation base pair substitution, base insertion and insertion of a transposon in a new location of a DNA.

Biology Chapter 14 Review Questions 1. A plant, animal, and fungus consist of diverse cell types. How might the diversity arise given that body cells in each of these organisms inherit the same set of gentic instructions? As part of your answer define cell differentiation and the general way that selective gene expression brings it about? 2. In what fundamental way do negative and positive controls of transcription differ? Is the effect of one or the other form of control or both reversible? 3. Distinguish between a. repressor protein and activator protein. b. promoter and operator c. repressor and enhancer In negative control systems, a repressor protein binds to the DNA to block transcription; it can be removed by an inducer. In positive control systems, an activator protein binds to the DNA and promotes initiation of transcription. Control can be exerted by chemical modification�methylation and acetylation� of DNA. 4. Describe one type of control of transcription for the lactose operon in E.Coli and prokaryotic cell? Negative Control of the Lactose Operon E. coli bacteria common in the human digestive tract can metabolize lactose because of a series of genes that code for lactose-digesting enzymes. The three genes are preceded by a promoter and an operator all together called an operon. A regulator gene nearby codes for a repressor protein that binds to the operator when lactose concentrations are low and effectively blocks RNA polymerase�s access to the promoter. When milk is consumed, the lactose binds to the repressor changing its shape and effectively removing its blockage of the promoter; thus RNA polymerase can now initiate transcription of the genes. Positive Control of the Lactose Operon The lactose operon also is subject to positive control by an activator protein called CAP. RNA polymerase will bind to the promoter if CAP is already there. And in turn, CAP must first be activated by cAMP. When glucose is scarce, the CAP-cAMP complex forms and turns on the lactose-metabolism genes. 5. Using the sketch on the facing page define three types of gene controls and note the levels at which they take effect. Does the sketch work for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Why or why not? Controls in Eukaryotic Cells A. Case Study: X Chromosome Inactivation 1. In mammalian females, the gene products of only one X chromosome are needed; the other is condensed and inactive�called a Barr body. 2. Because in some cells the paternal X chromosome is inactivated, while in other cells the maternal X chromosome is inactivated, each adult female is a mosaic of X-linked traits, called Lyonization. 3. This mosaic effect is seen in human females affected by anhidrotic ectodermal dys�plasia in which a mutant gene on one X chromosome results in patches of skin with no sweat glands. B. Case Study: Hormones as Control Agents 1. Hormones are major signaling molecules that can stimulate or inhibit gene activity in target cells. a. Some hormones bind to membrane receptors on cell surfaces. b. Others enter cells to bind with regulatory proteins to initiate transcription, often with the aid of enhancer sequences. 2. In insect life cycles, ecdysone promotes rapid transcription of genes causing chromosomes to enlarge for form polytene chromsomes. 3. In vertebrates, some hormones such as somatotropin have widespread effects because most of the body�s cells have receptors for it; whereas, prolactin affects only the mammary glands because only they have the receptors. C. Case Study: Sunlight and Phytochrome 1. Plant seedlings will respond to a single burst of light by making chlorophyll. 2. Phytochrome is a blue-green pigment that helps plants adapt to the changing light conditions of day/night and seasons. 3. Phytochrome influences the transcription of genes responsible for germination, stem elongation, branching, leaf expansion, and formation of flowers, fruits, and seeds depending on the season. IV. Focus on Science: Lost Controls and Cancer 6. What is a barr body? Does it appear in the cells of human males, human females or both? Explain your answer. In mammalian females, the gene products of only one X chromosome are needed; the other is condensed and inactive�called a Barr body. Because in some cells the paternal X chromosome is inactivated, while in other cells the maternal X chromosome is inactivated, each adult female is a mosaic of X-linked traits, called Lyonization. This mosaic effect is seen in human females affected by anhidrotic ectodermal dys�plasia in which a mutant gene on one X chromosome results in patches of skin with no sweat glands. 7. Briefly describe the general characteristics of normal cells. Then explain the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor. Changes in DNA are triggers for skin cancer, like the most deadly type�malignant melanoma. Cancers are malignant forms of tumors. Tumors are tissue masses that arise through mutations in the genes that govern growth and division. Malignant tumors grow rapidly, causing destructive effects on surrounding cells. Malignant cells can break lose and migrate to other parts of the body (metastasis).

Biology Chapter 15 Review Questions 1. Distinguish between recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes are treated with DNA ligase to splice the DNA fragments together to form a recombinant DNA molecule. 2. Distinguish these terms from one another. a. chromosomal genomic DNA and cDNA. b. cloning vector and DNA clone. The cDNA is made from mRNA by reverse transcriptase. The cDNA can be inserted into a plasmid for amplification. Cloning Vectors for Amplifying DNA Plasmids are circular DNA molecules in bacteria that carry only a few genes and can replicate independently of the single �main� chromosome. When the plasmid is replicated, any foreign DNA that might have become incorporated into it is also replicated, producing a DNA clone. Modified plasmids that are capable of accepting, replicating, and delivering DNA to another host cell are called cloning vectors. 3. Define PCR. Can fragments of chromosomal DNA, cDNA or both be amplified by PCR? The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to make millions of copies of cDNA. 4. Define DNA fingerprinting. Briefly describe which portions of the DNA are used in the DNA fingerprinting. 5. Outline the steps of automated DNA sequencing. Current laboratories use automated DNA sequencing to determine the unknown sequence of bases in a DNA sample. The machine builds DNA molecules but uses eight kinds of bases: four normal and four that are modified to fluoresce in laser light. When a modified base is incorporated, DNA synthesis is halted producing tagged fragments of different lengths. The automated DNA sequencer separates the sets of fragments by gel electrophoresis. The "tag" base at the end of each fragment in the set is identified by the laser beam. The computer program in the machine assembles the information from all the nucleotides in the sample to reveal the entire DNA sequence. 6. Define cDNA library then briefly describe how a gene can be isolated from it. Define probe and nucleic acid hybridization as part of your answer. Create a gene library, which is a collection of bacteria that house different cloned DNA fragments, one of which is of interest. The library may of the entire genome or of cDNA, which is free of introns. Screening For Genes 1. First, grow the bacterial colonies on suitable medium in a petri plate. 2. Place a nylon filter over the colonies and lift some cells off. 3. Place the filter in a solution to disrupt the cells but leave DNA sticking to the filter. 4. Add a radioactively-labeled probe DNA to the filter where it will bind to the DNA fragments of complementary sequence. 5. Expose the filter to x-ray film to locate the gene of interest, which will be in the same location as the cells in the petri plate A probe is DNA probes, short DNA sequences assembled from radioactive nucleotides, can pair with parts of the gene to be studied. This nucleic acid hybridization technique can be used with other procedures to select cells and their DNA, which may be of interest to the researcher. 7. Give three examples of applications that can be derived from knowledge of an organism's genome. 8. Name one of the ways in which modified genes have been inserted into mammalian cells. 9. Define gene therapy. Once the human genome has been fully sequenced, why will it be difficult to manipulate it's genes to advantange?

Review Questions Biology Chapter 1 Review Questions 1. Why is it difficult to formulate a simple definition of life? 2. Name the molecule of inheritance in cells. DNA 3. Write out simple definitions of the following terms. a. cell A cell is the smallest unit of organization having a capacity to survive and reproduce on its own, given DNA instructions suitable conditions, building blocks, and energy inputs. b. metabolism is each living cell has the capacity to obtain and convert energy from its surroundings and use energy to maintain itself, grow, and make more cells. c. energy is Energy, the capacity to do work, is transferred throughout the universe. d. ATP helps drives hundreds of events by transferring energy to metabolic workers. 4. How do organisms sense changes in their surroundings? Organisms respond so exquisitely to energy changes that their internal operating conditions remain within tolerable limits called a state of homeostasis. 5. Study Figure 1.5. Then on your own arrange and define the levels of biological organization. The hierarchy of biological organization includes cells, multicelled organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. 6. Study figure 1.6. Then on your own make a sketch of the one way flow of energy and the cycling of materials through the biosphere. To the side of the sketch write out definitions of producers, consumers, and decomposers. Producers which are plants and other organisms that make their own food. Animals are consumers. Decomposers break down sugars, and other biological molecules to simpler materials, some of which is cycled back to the producers. 7. List the shared characteristics of life. 8. What are the two parts of the scientific name for each kind of organism? Bacteria are prokaryotic (lacking a nucleus); all other kingdoms are eukaryotic (having a true nucleus). All organisms can be identified by a genus and species name. 9. List the six kingdoms of species as outlined in this chapter. Also list some of their general characteristics. Six kingdoms are presently recognized: a. Archaebacteria�the most ancient of bacteria, many anaerobic. b. Eubacteria�more recently evolved bacteria. c. Protista�one-celled organisms; producers or consumers. d. Fungi�molds, mushrooms; mostly decomposers. e. Plantae�familiar multicellular plants; mostly producers. f. Animalia�multicellular animals from sponges to humans; consumers. 10. Define mutation and adaptive trait. Explain the connection between mutation and the diversity of life. A. Mutation�Original Source of Variation Hereditary instructions are encoded in molecules of DNA. Variations in hereditary instructions arise through mutations. Mutations are changes in the kind, structure, sequence, or number of parts of DNA. Many mutations are harmful. Some may be harmless or even beneficial. An adaptive trait is any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions. 11. Write brief definitions of evolution, artificial selection, and natural selection. Evolution Defined The frequencies of genes and the effects they cause can change over time. Evolution is the change that characterizes populations through successive generations. Natural Selection Defined Charles Darwin reasoned that the practice of artificial selection used by pigeon breeders could serve as a model for his theory of natural selection. The main points of his theory are these: Members vary in form and behavior; much of the variation is heritable. Some varieties of heritable traits will improve survival and reproductive chances; i.e., they are more adaptive. Those with improved chances will be more likely to reproduce (differential re�produc�tion) and pass the adaptive traits on with greater frequency in future gener�ations (natural selection). Any population evolves when some forms of traits increase in frequency and others decrease or disappear over generations. Evolutionary processes help explain life's diversity. 12. Define and distinguish between a. hypothesis and prediction b. observational test and experimental test c. inductive and deductive logic d. speculation and scientific theory 13. With respect to experimental tests define variable, control group, and expermental group. 14. What does sampling error mean?

Biology Chapter 1 Review Questions 1. Why is it difficult to formulate a simple definition of life? 2. Name the molecule of inheritance in cells. DNA 3. Write out simple definitions of the following terms. a. cell A cell is the smallest unit of organization having a capacity to survive and reproduce on its own, given DNA instructions suitable conditions, building blocks, and energy inputs. b. metabolism is each living cell has the capacity to obtain and convert energy from its surroundings and use energy to maintain itself, grow, and make more cells. c. energy is Energy, the capacity to do work, is transferred throughout the universe. d. ATP helps drives hundreds of events by transferring energy to metabolic workers. 4. How do organisms sense changes in their surroundings? Organisms respond so exquisitely to energy changes that their internal operating conditions remain within tolerable limits called a state of homeostasis. 5. Study Figure 1.5. Then on your own arrange and define the levels of biological organization. The hierarchy of biological organization includes cells, multicelled organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. 6. Study figure 1.6. Then on your own make a sketch of the one way flow of energy and the cycling of materials through the biosphere. To the side of the sketch write out definitions of producers, consumers, and decomposers. Producers which are plants and other organisms that make their own food. Animals are consumers. Decomposers break down sugars, and other biological molecules to simpler materials, some of which is cycled back to the producers. 7. List the shared characteristics of life. 8. What are the two parts of the scientific name for each kind of organism? Bacteria are prokaryotic (lacking a nucleus); all other kingdoms are eukaryotic (having a true nucleus). All organisms can be identified by a genus and species name. 9. List the six kingdoms of species as outlined in this chapter. Also list some of their general characteristics. Six kingdoms are presently recognized: a. Archaebacteria�the most ancient of bacteria, many anaerobic. b. Eubacteria�more recently evolved bacteria. c. Protista�one-celled organisms; producers or consumers. d. Fungi�molds, mushrooms; mostly decomposers. e. Plantae�familiar multicellular plants; mostly producers. f. Animalia�multicellular animals from sponges to humans; consumers. 10. Define mutation and adaptive trait. Explain the connection between mutation and the diversity of life. A. Mutation�Original Source of Variation Hereditary instructions are encoded in molecules of DNA. Variations in hereditary instructions arise through mutations. Mutations are changes in the kind, structure, sequence, or number of parts of DNA. Many mutations are harmful. Some may be harmless or even beneficial. An adaptive trait is any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions. 11. Write brief definitions of evolution, artificial selection, and natural selection. Evolution Defined The frequencies of genes and the effects they cause can change over time. Evolution is the change that characterizes populations through successive generations. Natural Selection Defined Charles Darwin reasoned that the practice of artificial selection used by pigeon breeders could serve as a model for his theory of natural selection. The main points of his theory are these: Members vary in form and behavior; much of the variation is heritable. Some varieties of heritable traits will improve survival and reproductive chances; i.e., they are more adaptive. Those with improved chances will be more likely to reproduce (differential re�produc�tion) and pass the adaptive traits on with greater frequency in future gener�ations (natural selection). Any population evolves when some forms of traits increase in frequency and others decrease or disappear over generations. Evolutionary processes help explain life's diversity. 12. Define and distinguish between a. hypothesis and prediction b. observational test and experimental test c. inductive and deductive logic d. speculation and scientific theory 13. With respect to experimental tests define variable, control group, and expermental group. 14. What does sampling error mean?

Biology Chapter 3 Review Questions 1. Define organic compound. Name the type of chemical bond that predominates in the backbone of such a compound. Organic Compounds are the Molecules of Life These include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. They are used as energy sources, structural materials, metabolic workers, and carriers of hereditary information. These molecules are organic compounds, with hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon atoms. Carbon's Bonding Behavior\ Oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon are the most abundant elements in living things. Much of the hydrogen and oxygen are linked as water. Carbon can form four covalent bonds with other atoms to form organic molecules of several configurations. The orientations of the atoms attached to a carbon backbone give rise to the three-dimensional shapes and functions of biological molecules. 2. Define hydrocarbon. Also define functional group and give an example. A hydrocarbon, which has only hydrogen atoms attached to a carbon backbone, does not break apart easily; they form very stable portions of most biological molecules. Functional groups such as the �OH of alcohols are atoms or groups of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon backbone they convey distinct properties, such as solubility, to the complete molecule. 3. Name the molecules of life and the families of small organic compounds from which they are built. Do they break apart most easily at their hydrocarbon portion or at functional groups? Enzymes speed up specific metabolic reactions by these mechanisms: Functional-group transfer: one molecule gives up a functional group, which another molecule accepts. Electron transfer: one or more electrons stripped from one molecule are donated to another molecule. Rearrangement: a juggling of internal bonds converts one type of organic compound into another. Condensation: through covalent bonding, two molecules combine to form a larger molecule. Cleavage: a molecule splits into two smaller ones. 4. Describe the difference between a condensation reaction and hydrolysis. In condensation reactions, small molecules can combine to form larger ones; for example, sugar monomers combine to form starch polymers. In hydrolysis reactions, one larger molecule is split by the addition of H+ and OH� (from water) into its components. 5. Select one of the carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids described in this chapter. Speculate on how its functional groups and bonds between the carbon atoms in its backbone contribute to its final shape and function. Lipids are characterized by their inability to dissolve in water. Lipids are composed mostly of hydrocarbon. They form the basic structures of membranes and have roles in energy metabolism. 6. Which item listed includes all of the other items listed? a. triglyceride c. wax e. lipid b. fatty acid d. sterol f. phospholipid 7. Explain how hemoglobin's three dimensional shape arises Hemoglobin is a globular protein consisting of four folded chains, each with a heme group. High temperatures or chemicals can cause the three-dimensional shape to be disrupted. starting with the primary structure of its four chains.

Biology Chapter 4 1. State the three key points of the cell theory. The cell theory: has three generalizations: 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life. 3. The continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells. 2. Suppose you wish to observe the three dimensional surface of an insect's eye. Would you see more details with the aid of compound light microscope, transmission electron microscope or scanning electron microscope? compound light microscope. 3. plant cell and a animal cell differences and similarities of cells? Defining Features of Eukaryotic Cells A. Major Cellular Components Organelles form compartmentalized portions of the cytoplasm. All eukaryotic cells contain organelles. The nucleus controls access to DNA and permits easier packing of DNA during cell division. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) modifies newly formed polypeptide chains and is also involved with lipid synthesis. The Golgi body modifies, sorts, and ships proteins; they also play a role in the synthesis of lipids for secretion or internal use. Vesicles transport material between organelles and function in intracellular digestion. Mitochondria are efficient factories of ATP production. Cells also contain non-membranous structures: Ribosomes, �free� or attached to membranes, participate in assembly of polypeptide chains. The cytoskeleton helps to determine cell shape, internal organization, and movements. Organelles separate reactions with respect to time (allowing proper sequencing) and space (allowing incompatible reactions to occur in close proximity). Which Organelles Are Typical of Plants? Although it is labeled "typical," no one diagram can speak for all variations in plant cells. Which Organelles Are Typical of Animals?a all variations in animal cells. Also notice the differences between plant and animal cells, particularly the cell wall and large central vacuole of plant cells. Eukaryotic Cells A. Major Cellular Components Organelles form compartmentalized portions of the cytoplasm. All eukaryotic cells contain organelles. Eukaryotic cells are defined by their possession of a membrane-bound nucleus. Prokaryotic cells have no defined nucleus; the only representatives are bacteria. 4. Parts of a bacterial cell are 5. Describe three features that all cells have in common. Defining Features of Eukaryotic Cells A. Major Cellular Components 1. Organelles form compartmentalized portions of the cytoplasm. 2. All eukaryotic cells contain organelles. a. The nucleus controls access to DNA and permits easier packing of DNA during cell division. b. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) modifies newly formed polypeptide chains and is also involved with lipid synthesis. c. The Golgi body modifies, sorts, and ships proteins; they also play a role in the synthesis of lipids for secretion or internal use. d. Vesicles transport material between organelles and function in intracellular digestion. e. Mitochondria are efficient factories of ATP production. 3. Cells also contain non-membranous structures: b. Ribosomes, �free� or attached to membranes, participate in assembly of polypeptide chains. g. The cytoskeleton helps to determine cell shape, internal organization, and movements. Organelles separate reactions with respect to time (allowing proper sequencing) and space (allowing incompatible reactions to occur in close proximity). Organelles Are Typical of Plants? Which Organelles Are Typical of Animals? notice the differences between plant and animal cells, particularly the cell wall and large central vacuole of plant cells. Prokaryotic Cells The term prokaryotic (literally, "before the nucleus") indicates existence of bacteria before evolution of cells with a nucleus; bacterial DNA is clustered in a distinct region of the cytoplasm. Bacteria are some of the smallest and simplest cells. A somewhat rigid cell wall supports the cell and surrounds the plasma membrane, which regulates transport into and out of the cell. Ribosomes, protein assembly sites, are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Bacterial flagella (without a 9+2 array) provide movement; pili on the cell surface help bacteria attach to surfaces and one another. 6. Briefly descibe nucleus, nuclear envelope, and nucleolus. The Nucleus The nucleus isolates DNA, which contains the code for protein assembly, from the sites (ribosomes in cytoplasm) where proteins will be assembled. Localization of the DNA makes it easier to sort out hereditary instructions when the time comes for a cell to divide. The membranous boundary of the nucleus helps control the exchange of signals and substances between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nuclear Envelope The nuclear envelope consists of two lipid bilayers with pores. It surrounds the nucleoplasm within. On the inner surface are attachment sites for protein filaments that anchor the DNA molecules and keep them organized. Nucleolus Located within the nucleus, the nucleolus appears as a darker globular mass. It is a region where subunits of ribosomes are prefabricated before ship�ment out of the nucleus. 7. Define chromosome and chromatin. A chromosome is an individual DNA molecule and its associated proteins. Chromatin refers to the cell's total collection of DNA and associated proteins. 8. Which organelles are part of the cytomembrane system? Some of the polypeptide chains assembled on the ribosomes are stockpiled in the cytoplasm. Others pass through the cytomembrane system, where they take on their final form and become packaged in vesicles for use within the cell or for export. 9. Is this statement true or false. Plant cells have chloroplasts but not mitochondria True because Specialized Plant Organelles Chloroplasts and Other Plastids Chloroplasts are oval or disk shaped, are bounded by a double membrane, and are criti�cal to the process of photosynthesis. In the stacked disks (grana), pigments and enzymes trap sunlight energy to form ATP. Sugars are formed in the fluid substance (stroma) surrounding the stacks. Pigments such as chlorophyll (green) confer distinctive colors to the chloroplasts. Chromoplasts have carotenoids, which impart red-to-yellow colors to plant parts, but no chlorophyll. 10. What are the functions of the central vacuole? Central Vacuole In the mature plant, the central vacuole may occupy 50�90% of the cell interior. It stores amino acids, sugars, ions, and wastes. The vacuole enlarges during growth and greatly increases the cell�s outer surface area. The cytoplasm is forced into a very narrow zone between the central vacuole and the plasma membrane. 11. Define cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is an interconnected system of fibers, threads, and lattices that extends between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. It gives cells their internal organization, overall shape, and capacity to move. The main components are microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate fila�ments�all assembled from protein subunits. Some portions are transient, such as the �spindle� microtubules used in chromosome movement during cell division; others are permanent, such as filaments operational in muscle contraction. 12. What gives rise to the 9 + 2 array of cilia and flagella. Flagella are quite long, are usually not numerous, and are found on one-celled protistans and animal sperm cells. Cilia are shorter and more numerous and can provide locomotion for free-living cells or may move surrounding water and particles if the ciliated cell is anchored. Both of these extensions of the plasma membrane have a 9 + 2 cross-sectional array (arising from centrioles) and are useful in propulsion. 13. Cell walls are typical of which organisms bacteria, protistans, fungi, plants, animals? Are the walls impermeable? bacteria, plants animals. 14. In certain plant cells, is a secondary wall deposited inside or outside the surface of the primary wall? inside. Eukaryotic Cell Walls Many single-celled eukaryotes have a cell wall, a supportive and protective structure outside the plasma membrane Microscopic pores allow water and solute passage to and from underlying plasma membrane. In plants, bundles of cellulose strands form the primary cell wall, which is more pliable than the more rigid secondary wall that is laid down inside it later. Plasmodesmata are the channels that cross the adjacent walls to connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. 15. In multicelled organisms coordinated interactions depend on linkages and communications between cells. What types of junctions occur between adjacent animal cells? Plant Cells? Plasmodesmata are the channels that cross the adjacent walls to connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. Matrixes Between Animal Cells This is a meshwork that holds animal cells and tissues together and influences how the cells will divide and metabolize. Cartilage consists of cells and proteins (collagen and elastin) scattered in a ground substance (modified polysaccharides). Cell-to-Cell Junctions At tissue surfaces, cells link together to form a barrier between the interior and exterior. Three cell-to-cell junctions are common. Tight junctions link cells of epithelial tissues to form seals. Adhering junctions are like spot welds in tissues subject to stretching. Gap junctions link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells; they form communication channels.

Biology Chapter 5 1. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Does life violate the second law? First law of thermodynamics states that the total amount of energy in the universe is con�stant; it cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change form. Energy cannot be produced by a cell; it can only be borrowed from someplace else. The One-Way Flow of Energy Energy can be of high quality, that is, highly concentrated and usable; or it can be of low quality, such as heat that is released into the universe. Second law of thermodynamics states that the spontaneous direction of energy flow is from high- to low-quality forms. Each conversion results in production of energy (usually heat) that is unavailable for work. As systems lose energy, they become more disorganized; the measure of this disorder is called entropy. The world of life (plant and animal) maintains a high degree of organization only because it is being resupplied with energy from the sun. 2. Define and give a few examples of potential energy. Potential energy is the capacity to do work; in molecules it is called chemical energy. 3. How does ATP prime a molecule to enter a reaction? The Role of ATP Before cells can use the energy of sunlight or that stored in carbohydrates, they must transfer the energy to molecules of ATP. ATP is composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP transfers energy to many different chemical reactions; almost all metabolic path�ways directly or indirectly run on energy supplied by ATP. Energy input links phosphate to ADP to produce ATP. ATP can donate a phosphate group (phosphorylation) to another molecule, which then becomes primed and energized for specific reactions. ADP can be recycled to ATP very rapidly. 4. Define and describe four key features of enzymes. Enzyme Structure and Function A. Four Features of Enzymes 1. Enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts; they speed up reactions. 2. Enzymes can be reused. 3. Enzyme actions are reversible. 4. Enzymes are selective and act upon specific substrates. 5. If all transport proteins work by changing shape then how do passive transporters differ from active transporters? Protein-Mediated Transport Passive Transport 1. In passive transport, solutes pass through the cell membrane with assistance from transport proteins in accordance with the concentration gradient. 2. Transport proteins change shape to move substances into and out of the cell. Active Transport 1. In active transport, solutes can move against concentration gradients with assistance from transport proteins that can change their shape with energy supplied by ATP. 2. The sodium-potassium pump is a major cotransport system in that it can set up concentration gradients that can in turn drive other transport activities. 6. Define diffusion in terms of concentration gradients, electric gradients, pressure gradients. What is osmosis? Movement of Water Across Membranes Osmosis Bulk flow is the mass movement of one or more substances in response to pressure, gravity, of some other external force, like the flow of blood in the circulatory system. Osmosis is the passive movement of water across a differentially permeable membrane in response to solute concentration gradients, pressure gradients, or both. Effects of Tonicity Osmotic movements are affected by the relative concentrations of solutes (called tonicity) in the fluids in�side and outside the cell. Three conditions can occur: A hypotonic fluid has a lower concentration of solutes than does the fluid in the cell; cells immersed in it may swell. A hypertonic fluid has a greater concentration of solutes than does the fluid in the cell; cells in it may shrivel. An isotonic fluid has the same concentration of solutes as the fluid in the cell; immer�sion in it causes no net movement of water. Effects of Fluid Pressure Any volume of fluid exerts hydrostatic pressure against a cell membrane. Osmotic pressure is the amount of force that prevents any further increase in the volume of solution inside a cell. 7. Distinguish between exocytosis and endocytosis? Exocytosis Vesicles, small sacs made of membranes, can transport and store substances within the cytoplasm. Exocytosis moves substances from cytoplasm to plasma membrane during secretion. Endocytosis Endocytosis encloses particles in small portions of plasma membrane to form vesicles that then move into the cytoplasm. Phagocytic cells (amoebas and white blood cells) digest the contents of the endocytic vesicles by means of enzymes within lysosomes which fuse with the vesicles.

Biology Review Questions Chapter 6 1. A cat eats a bird, which earlier ate a caterpillar that chewed on a weed. Which organisms are autotrophs? Which are the heterotrophs? 2. Summarize the photosynthesis reactions as an equation. Name where each stage takes place inside a chloroplast. Photosynthesis�An Overview Where the Reactions Take Place Both stages of photosynthesis occur in the chloroplast. The semifluid interior (stroma) is the site for the second series of photosynthesis reactions. Flattened sacs, thylakoids, interconnected by channels weave through the stroma; the first reactions occur here. There are two series of reactions: The light-dependent reactions convert light energy to chemical energy, which is stored in ATP and NADPH; water is split. The light-independent reactions assemble sugars and other organic molecules using ATP and NADPH as energy sources. Overall, for glucose formation: sunlight 12H2O + 6CO2 �����> 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O 3. What is the function of ATP in photosynthesis? What is the function of NADPH? The Light-Dependent Reactions Three events are involved: 1. Pigments absorb light energy and give up electrons. 2. Water molecules are split; ATP and NADPH form; oxygen is released. 3. Electrons are replaced in the pigment molecules that first gave them up. The Light-Independent Reactions These reactions constitute a pathway known as the Calvin-Benson cycle. 1. The participants and their roles in the synthesis of carbohydrates are: a. ATP, which provides energy. b. NADPH, which provides hydrogen atoms and electrons. c. Atmospheric air, which provides the carbon and oxygen from carbon dioxide. 2. The reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplasts and are not dependent on sunlight. 4. Which of the following pigments are most visible in a maple leaf in summer? Which become the most visible in autumn? a. chlorophylls c. anthocyanins b. phycobillins d. carotenoids 5. How does chlorophyll a differ in function from accessory pigments during the light dependent reactions? Pigment molecules on the thylakoid membranes absorb photons. Chlorophyll pigments absorb blue and red but transmit green (leaves). Carotenoid pigments absorb violet and blue but transmit yellow, orange, and red. 6. Fill in figure 6.18 for the light dependent reactions. 7. With respect to the light dependent reactions how do the cyclic and non cyclic pathways of electron flow differ? Cyclic and Noncyclic Electron Flow In the cyclic pathway of ATP formation, electrons are first excited, pass through an electron transport system, and then return to the orig�inal photosystem. This photosystem is characterized by the presence of chlorophyll P700. The cyclic pathway is an ancient way to make ATP from ADP; it was used by early bacteria. The noncyclic pathway of ATP formation transfers electrons through two photosystems and two electron transport systems (ETS) simultaneously. One pathway begins when chlorophyll P680 in photosystem II absorbs energy. Boosted electron moves through a transport system, which releases energy for ADP + Pi ��> ATP. Electron from photolysis of water fills �electron hole� left in P680 and produces oxygen by-product. 8. What substance does not take part in the Calvin Benson cycle ATP, NADPH, RuBP, carentoids, o2, CO2, or enzymes? The Light-Independent Reactions These reactions constitute a pathway known as the Calvin-Benson cycle. The participants and their roles in the synthesis of carbohydrates are: ATP, which provides energy. NADPH, which provides hydrogen atoms and electrons. Atmospheric air, which provides the carbon and oxygen from carbon dioxide. The reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplasts and are not dependent on sunlight. Do Plants Capture Carbon Carbon dioxide diffuses into a leaf, across the plasma membrane of a photosynthetic cell, and into the stroma of a chloroplast. Rubisco joins carbon dioxide to RuBP to produce an unstable intermediate that splits to form two molecules of PGA. How Do Plants Build Glucose? Each PGA then receives a Pi from ATP plus H+ and electrons from NADPH to form PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde). Most of the PGAL molecules continue in the cycle to fix more carbon dioxide, but two PGAL join to form a sugar-phosphate, which will be modified to sucrose, starch, and cellulose. 9. Fill in the blanks for figure 6.19. Which substances are the original sources of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms used in the synthesis of glucose in the Calvin Benson cycle? 10. On hot dry days oxygen from photosynthesis accumulates in leaves. Explain why and explain what happens in C3 plants versus C4 plants A. C4 Plants Plants in hot, dry environments close their stomata to conserve water, but in so doing retard carbon dioxide entry and permit oxygen buildup inside the leaves. oxygen�not carbon dioxide� becomes attached to RuBP to yield one PGA (instead of two) and one phosphoglycolate (not useful); this unproductive process is called photorespiration. To overcome this fate, crabgrass, sugarcane, corn, and other plants fix carbon twice to produce oxaloacetate, a four-carbon, compound which can then donate the carbon dioxide to the Calvin-Benson cycle. These plants are called C4 plants. CAM Plants In desert plants opening the stomata in the daytime would allow too much water to escape. Instead, they open the stomata at night and fix CO2 in the form of crassulacean acid for use the next day in carbohydrate synthesis. These plants are known as CAM plants. 11. Are photoautotrophs the only self feeders? If not give examples and where you might find them?

Biology Chapter 7 Review Questions 1. Is this true or false. Aerobic respiration occurs in animals but not plants, which make ATP only by photosynthesis. 2. Using the diagram below of the aerobic pathway fill in the blanks with the number of molecules of pyruvate, coenzymes, and end products. Write in the net ATP formed in each stage then the net ATP formed from start glycolysis to finish. 3. Is glycolysis energy requiring or energy releasing? Or do both kinds of reactions occur during glycolysis? 4. In what respect does electron transport phosphorylation differ from substrate level phosphorylation? 5. Sketch the double membrane system of the mitchochondrion and show where electron transport systems and ATP synthases are located. 6. Name the compound that is the entry point for the Krebs cycle and state whether it directly accepts the pyruvate from glycolysis. For each glucose molecule how many carbon atoms enter the Kreb's cycle? How many depart from it, and in what form? 7. Is this statement true or false? Muscle cells cannot contract at all when deprived of oxygen. If true explain why? If false name the alternatives available to them?

Biology Chapter 8 Review Questions 1. Define mitosis and meiosis two mechanisms that operate in eukaryotic cells. Does either one divide the cytoplasm? 2. Define somatic cell and germ cell? 3. What are chromosomal proteins? Give an example and briefly state how it interacts with a DNA molecule? 4. What is a chromosome called when it is in the unduplicated state? In the duplicated state with two sister chromatids? 5. Describe the microtubular spindle and its functions. What role do motor proteins play in its operation? 6. Using the diagram above as a guide name and describe the key features of the stages of mitosis? 7. Briefly explain how cytoplasmic division differs between a typical plant cell and typical animal cell?

Biology Chapter 9 Review Questions 1. The diploid chromosome numbers for the somatic cells of a few organisms are listed below. How many chromosomes will end up in the gametes of each organism? Fruit fly Garden pea Corn Frog 2. A diploid germ cell has four pairs of homologous chromosomes designated AA, BB, CC, DD. How would the chromosomes of the gametes be designated? 3. Look at the chromosomes in the germ cell in the diagram. Is this cell at anaphase 1 or anaphase II? 4. Define meiosis and describe its stages? In what respects is meiosis not like mitosis? 5. What is the name for the alternative forms of the same gene? 6. Outline the main steps in which gametes form in plants? Do the same for gamete formation in animals? 7. Genetically what is the key difference between the outcomes of sexual and asexual reproduction?

Biology Chapter 10 Review Questions 1. Distinguish between these terms. a. gene and allele b. dominant allele and recessive allele c. homozygote and heterozygote d. genotype and phenotype 2. Define a true breeding lineage. What is a hybrid? 3. Distinquish between monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, testcross. 4. Do segregation and independent assortment occur in mitosis, meiosis or both? 5. What do the vertical and horizontal arrows of the diagram represent? What do the bars and curved line represent?

Biology Chapter 11 Review Questions 1. What is a gene? What are alleles? 2. Distinguish between a. homologous and nonhomologous chromosomes. b. sex chromosomes and autosomes. c. karyotype and karyotype diagram. 3. Define genetic recombination and describe how crossing over can bring it about? 4. Define pedigree. Explain the difference between genetic abnormality and genetic disorder using examples. 5. Contrast a typical pattern of autosomal recessive inheritance with that of autosomal dominant inheritance. 6. Describe two clues that often show up when a recessive allele on a X chromosome causes a genetic disorder. 7. Distinguish among a chromosomal deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation. 8. Define aneuploidy and polyploidy. Make a simple sketch of an example of nondisjunction.

Biology Chapter 16 Review Questions 1. Define biogeography and comparative anatomy. How did studies in both disciplines contradict the idea that species have remained unchanged since the time of their creation? The world distribution of organisms a discipline now known as biogeography. the world distribution of plants and animals, a study called biogeography. Studies of comparative morphology revealed similarities in the bones of animals not considered to be related. Some animals possessed body parts for which a function no longer existed for example: pelvic girdle bones in snakes, but these anomalies revealed a relationship to other animals. 2. Define evolution. Define evolution by natural selection. Can an individual evolve? Evolution Fossils revealed that changes had occurred in organisms over periods of time�evolution It became clear that the distribution of fossils around the earth was an argument against a single time and place of creation. 3. Name three broad categories of heritable traits that help characterize a population? Natural selection is a major microevolutionary process that results in the differential survival and reproduction of individuals of a population that differ in one or more traits. The main points of the theory are: 1. All populations have the reproductive capacity to increase in size, threatening their own survival, forcing a competition for limited resources. 2. Individuals of a population share in the same gene pool, but differ in phenotypic details. 3. Some alleles promote survival and reproduction and therefore increase in frequency over generations resulting in individuals that differ in one or more heritable traits�evolution. 4. Explain the difference between continous variation and polymorphism. 5. How do lethal mutations and neutral mutations differ? A mutation that has severe effects on phenotype typically leads to death it is a lethal mutation. a neutral mutation does not help or harm a individual. 6. Define genetic equilibrium. Which occurrences can drive allele frequencies away from genetic equilibrium? Allele frequencies change when a population is evolving. 2. The Hardy-Weinberg formula is used to establish allele frequencies at genetic equilib�rium (no evolution), which is possible under these conditions: a. No mutations are occurring. b. The population is very, very large. c. The population is isolated from other populations of the same species. d. All members survive and reproduce (no selection). e. Mating is completely random. 7. Define fitness with respect to phenotype. 8. Identify the mode of selection stabilizing, directional or disruptive for the diagrams. 9. Define bottleneck and the founder effect. Are these cases of genetic drift or do they merely set the stage for it?

Biology Chapter 17 Review Questions 1. How does the biological species concept differ from a definition of species based on morphological traits alone? 2. Define speciation and describe a speciation model. 3. Give examples of reproductive isolating mechanisms. 4. With respect to evolutionary tree diagrams describe what each of the following features represents. a. a single line. b. soft angled branching of line. c. horizontal branching. d. vertical continuation of branch. e. many branchings of a line. f. dashed line. g. branch ending before present. 5. Define and give an example of adaptive radiation. 6. Define extinction. What kinds of events might bring about extinctions?

Biology Chapter 18 Review Questions 1. Distinguish macroevolution from microevolution. Compare C1 with selection. 2. Name some of the reasons why biologists expect to find gaps in the fossil record of what apparently is the continuous evolution of life from the time of its origin. 3. Name three eras of the geologic time scale. 4. Did life originate in the Archean or Proterozoic eon? 5. Define radiometric dating. What does half life mean? 6. Give an example of how immense crustal movements have influenced the evolution of life., 7. Define and give examples of the difference between a. homologous and analogous structures. b. morphological divergence and convergence. 8. Comparitive morphology refers to comparisons of body form and structures, embryonic and adult for major lineages. Describe an example of such a comparison. 9. Name a protein specified by a gene that has been highly conserved in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. 10. Why do evolutionary biologists apply heat energy to hybrid molecules that contain DNA from two species? 11. What type of mutation is the basis of molecular clock? What does the last tick of a molecular clock signify? 12. Name all the kingdoms in the six kingdom classification scheme and give examples of representative organisms.

Biology Chapter 19 Review Questions 1. Compare chemical and physical conditions that are thought to have prevailed on the Earth 4 billion years with current conditions. 2. Describe some experimental evidence for the spontaneous origin of large organic molecules, self assembly of proteins, and formation of organic membranes, and spheres. 3. Summarize the key points of the theory of endosymbiotic origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cite evidence that favors this theory. 4. Describe the prevailing conditions that probably favored the Cambrian explosion of diversity among marine animals as evidenced by the fossil record. 5. When did plants, fungi, insects invade the land? What kind of vertebrates first invaded the land and when? 6. What were the global conditions like when the gymnosperms and dinosaurs originated? 7. Briefly explain how an asteroid impact and global broiling may have caused the mass extinction at the K-T boundary? 8. Would you expect the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, or Cenozoic to be called the age of mammals? As part of your answer explain the differences between global conditions in each era?

Biology Chapter 20 Review Questions 1. Describe key metabolic features and structural features of bacteria. Make sketches of three basic shapes of bacterial cells. 2. Describe one or two eubacteria that benefit humans. Name one or two that cause human diseases. 3. How is bacterial growth measured? 4. Define and describe the characteristics of a virus? 5. Review table 20.4. Then cover it with a sheet of paper and list the major categories of protistans. Oraganism Level of organization cell size cell wall organelles metabolism 6. Select three protistan species then briefly explain how they affect our affairs such as human health.

Biology Chapter 21 Review Questions 1. Describe the fungal mold of nutrition and explain how the structure of mycelia facilatates this mold. 2. How does a lichen differ from a mycorrhiza? 3. List conditions that influence fungal spore formation. 4. What makes fungi such successful decomposers?

Biology Chapter 22 Review Questions 1. List a few structural and reproductive modifications that helped plants invade and diversify in habitats on land. 2. Does the haploid phase or diploid phase dominate the life cycles of most plants? 3. Name representatives of the following groups of plants then compare their main characteristics. a. Bryophytes and seedless vascular plants. b. Gymnosperms and angiosperms. 4. Distinguish between a. Root system and shoot system. b. Xylem and phloem. c. Sporophyte and gametophyte. d. Ovule and seed. e. Microspore and megaspore.

Biology Chapter 23 Review Questions 1. List the six main features that characterize animals. 2. When attempting to discern evolutionary relationships among major groups of animals which aspects of their body plans provide the most useful clues? 3. What is a coelom? Why was it important in the evolution of certain animal lineages. 4. Name some animals with a saclike gut. Evolutionarily what advantages does a complete gut afford? 5. Choose a species of insect that lives in your neighborhood and describe some of the observable adaptations that underlie its success.

Biology Chapter 24 Review Questions 1. Which features distinguish chordates from other groups of animals? 2. List four major trends that apparently developed during the evolution of at least some vertebrate lineages. 3. Describe some of the defining characteristics of jawless fishes cartilaginous fishes, and bony fishes. Which group is the most abundant? 4. Which traits distinguish reptiles from amphibians? 5. Birds, crocodilians and dinosaurs share what traits? 6. List some characteristics that distinguish each of the three mammalian lineages from the reptiles. 7. What are the key differences between a hominoid and a hominid? 8. Briefly describe some of the conserved physical traits that connect anatomically modern humans with their mammalian ancestors then their primate ancestors.

Biology Chapter 25 Review Questions 1. How many major mass extinctions have occurred including the one that is now underway? 2. List four human activities that are major contributors to the current extinction crises. Which threaten coral reefs? 3. Define endangered, endemic and indicator species. 4. Distinguish between island habitat and habitat island? 5. State the goal of conservation biology and briefly describe its three pronged approach to achieving that goal. 6. Define hot spot. Why are conservation biologists focusing on hot spots rather than quickly completing a global survey?

Biology Chapter 26 Review Questions 1. Choose a flowering plant and list some functions of its roots and shoots. 2. Name and define the basic functions of a flowering plant's three main tissue systems. 3. Describe differences between a. apical, transitional, and lateral meristems. b. parenchyma and sclerenchyma. c. xylem and phloem d. epidermis and periderm 4. Is the plant with the yellow flower in Figure 26.24 a dicot or a a monocot? What about the plant with the purple flower? 5. Which of the two stem sections below is typical of most dicots? Which is typical of most monocots? Label the main tissue regions of both sections. 6. Label the components of the three year old tree section. Then make a rough count of the number of growth rings of a stem section.

Biology Chapter 27 Review Questions 1. Define soil and then distinguish between a. humus and loam b. leaching and erosion c. macronutrient and micronutrient for plants 2. Define nutrient. What are signs that a plant is deficient in one of the essential nutrients in Table 27.1? 3. What is the function of the Casparian strip in roots? 4. Using Dixon's model explain how water moves from soil upward through tall plants. 5. Describe the structure and function of a plant cuticle. 6. Which type of ion influences stomatal action? 7. Explain translocation according to the pressure flow theory described in this chapter.

Biology Chapter 28 Review Questions 1. Label the floral parts. Explain floral function by relating the parts to events in the life cycle of flowering plants. 2. Distinguish between a. Sporophyte and gametophyte b. Megaspore and microspore c. Pollination and fertilization d. Pollen, grain, pollen tube e. Ovule female gametophyte f. Seed, fuit g. senescence, dormancy 3. Describe the steps by which a seven cell eight nucleate embryo sac a type of female gametophyte forms. 4. Define and describe one mode of vegative growth. 5. Name the three key factors that interact to dictate patterns of plant growth and development. 6. List five types of plant hormones and briefly describe the known functions of each. 7. Define plant tropism and give a specific example. 8. What is phytochrome and what is its role in flowering or some other process.

Biology Chapter 29 Review Questions 1. Describe the characteristics of epithelial tissue in general. Then describe the various types of epithelial tissues in terms of specific characteristics and functions. 2. List the major types of connective tissues add the names and characteristics of their specific types. 3. Identify and describe the following tissues. 4. Identify this category of tissue and its characteristics. 5. What type of cell serves as the basic unit of communication in nervous system. 6. Define animal tissue organ, and organ system. List and define the functions of the eleven major organ systems of the human body. 7. Define extracellular fluid interstitial fluid and plasma. 8. Define homeostasis. 9. Describe briefly two major categories of homeostatic mechanisms operating in the human body.

Biology Chapter 1 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 1 1. It is at the __________ level that differences between living and nonliving things begin to emerge. [p.4] 2. The signature molecule of cells is a nucleic acid known as __________. [p.4] 3. Describe the nature of the instructions that are encoded in DNA�s structure. [p.4] 4. Cells arise only from cells that already exist through the process of __________. [p.4] 5. __________ refers to actual mechanisms by which parents produce offspring. [p.4] 6. Briefly describe the role of DNA in the development of organisms. [p.4-5] 7. Relate the concept of energy to the capacity of cells to metabolize. [p.5] 8. __________ is an energy carrier that helps drive hundreds of events by transferring energy to metabolic workers such as enzymes. [p.5] 9. By the process of aerobic __________, cells can release stored energy in food molecules and produce ATP molecules. [p.5] 10. __________ are certain molecules and structures that can detect stimuli. [p.5] 11. List some typical stimuli that are detected by receptors. [p.5] 12. __________ refers to the internal operating conditions of organisms remaining within tolerable limits. [p.5] 13. Arrange in order, from least inclusive to most inclusive, the levels of organization that occur in nature. Define each level as you list it. [pp.6-7] 14. Explain how the actions of producers, consumers, and decomposers create an interdependency among organisms. [p.7] 15. Describe the general pattern of energy flow through Earth�s life forms, and explain how Earth�s resources are used again and again (cycled). [p.7] 16. Explain the use of genus and species names by considering your Latin name, Homo sapiens . [p.8] 17. Arrange in order, from greater to fewer organisms included, the following categories of classification: class, family, genus, kingdom, order, phylum, and species. [p.8] 18. List the six kingdoms of life; briefly describe the general characteristics of the organisms placed in each. [pp.8-9] 19. Distinguish these terms: prokaryotic, eukaryotic. [pp.8-9] 20. Explain the origin of trait variations that function in inheritance. [p.10] 21. An __________ trait is any form of a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions. [p.10] 22. __________ means genetically based changes in a line of descent over time. [p.10] 23. Darwin used the practice of __________ selection as a model for natural selection. [p.10] 24. Define natural selection , and briefly describe what is occurring when a population is said to evolve. [pp.10-11] 25. Explain what is meant by the term life�s diversity and speculate about what caused the great diversity of life forms on Earth. [p.11] 26. Be able to list the general steps used in scientific research. [p.12] 27. Be able to distinguish between inductive logic and deductive logic. [p.12] 28. __________ are tests that simplify observation in nature or the laboratory by manipulating and controlling the conditions under which observations are made. [p.12] 29. Generally, members of a control group should be identical to those of the experimental group except for the __________. [p.13] 30. Experimenters must avoid __________ __________, or risking tests with groups that by chance are not representative of the whole. [p.13]. 31. Define what is meant by scientific theory; cite an actual example. [p.13] 32. Due to possible bias on the part of experimenters, science emphasizes presenting test results in __________ terms. [p.15] 33. Explain how the methods of science differ from answering questions by using subjective thinking and systems of belief. [p.15] Answers: 1. molecular 2. DNA 3. n/a 4. inheritance 5. Reproduction 6. n/a 7. n/a 8. ATP 9. respiration 10. Receptors 11. n/a 12. Homeostasis 13. n/a 14. n/a 15. n/a 16. n/a 17. n/a 18. n/a 19. n/a 20. n/a 21. adaptive 22. Evolution 23. artificial 24. n/a 25. n/a 26. n/a 27. n/a 28. Experiments 29. variable 30. sampling error 31. n/a 32. quantitative 33. n/a

Biology Chapter 2 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 2 1. The use of living organisms to withdraw harmful substances from the environment is known as __________. [p.20] 2. Be able to explain what an element is. [p.20] 3. Define trace element. [pp.20-21] 4. List and describe the three types of subatomic particles occurring in atoms and describe the reason that hydrogen is an exception. [p.22] 5. The number of protons in an atom is referred to as the __________ number of that element; the combined number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus is referred to as the __________ number of that element. [p.22] 6. Distinguish between isotopes and radioisotopes. [p.22] 7. Be able to read a chemical equation. [text Figure 2.9, p. 25] 8. Describe what tracers are and how they are used. [p.23] 9. __________ uses radioactively labeled compounds to yield images of metabolically active and inactive tissues in a patient. [p.23] 10. Describe the use of radiation therapy. [p.23] 11. Explain the relationship of orbitals to shells. [p.24] 12. Be able to sketch shell models of the atoms described in the text. [text Figure 2.8, page 25] 13. Explain why helium and neon are known as inert atoms. [p.25] 14. A __________ is formed when two or more atoms bond together. [p.25] 15. A __________ contains atoms of two or more elements whose proportions never vary. [p.25] 16. How does a mixture differ from a compound? [p.25] 17. An __________ is an atom that becomes positively or negatively charged. [p.26] 18. An association of two oppositely charged ions is a(n) __________ bond. [p.26] 19. In a(n) __________ bond, two atoms share electrons. [p.26] 20. Explain why H2 is an example of a nonpolar covalent bond and H2O has two polar covalent bonds. [pp.26-27] 21. In a(n) __________ bond, a small, highly electronegative atom of a molecule weakly interacts with a hydrogen atom that is already participating in a polar covalent bond. [p.27] 22. Polar molecules attracted to water are __________; all nonpolar molecules are __________ and are repelled by water. [p.28] 23. __________ is a measure of molecular motion; during __________, an input of heat energy converts liquid water to the gaseous state. [p.29] 24. Describe the formation of ice in terms of hydrogen bonding. [p.29] 25. Completely describe the properties of water that move water from the roots to the tops of the tallest trees. [p.29] 26. Distinguish a solvent from a solute. [p.29] 27. Describe what happens when a substance is dissolved in water. [p.29] 28. The ionization of water is the basis of the __________ scale. [p.30] 29. __________ are substances that donate protons (H+) when they dissolve in water, and __________ are substances that accept H+ when dissolved in water. [p.30] 30. Black coffee with a pH of 5 is a(n) __________ solution while baking soda with a pH of 9 is a(n) __________ solution. [p.30] 31. Define buffer system; cite an example and describe how buffers operate. [p.31] 32. Be able to define the following terms: acid stomach, acid rain, chemical burns, coma, tetany, acidosis, and alkalosis. [pp.30-31] 33. __________ are compounds that release ions other than H+ and OH- in solutions. They often form with water when a strong acid and a strong base interact. [p.31] Answers: 1. bioremedition 2. n/a 3. n/a 4. n/a 5. atomic, mass 6. n/a 7. n/a 8. n/a 9. PET 10. n/a 11. n/a 12. n/a 13. n/a 14. molecule 15. compound 16. n/a 17. ion 18. ionic 19. covalent 20. n/a 21. hydrogen 22. hydrophilic, hydrophobic 23. Temperature, evaporation 24. n/a 25. n/a 26. n/a 27. n/a 28. pH 29. Acids, bases 30. acid, basic 31. n/a 32. n/a 33. Salts http://www.brookscole.com/biology_d/templates/student_resources/0534385494_starr/questions/ch02.html

Biology Chapter 3 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 3 1. The molecules of life are __________ compounds [p.36]. 2. Each carbon atom can share pairs of electrons with as many as __________ other atoms. [p.36] 3. A __________ has only hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon backbone. [p.36] 4. Hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl are examples of __________ groups. [p.36] 5. Describe the role of enzymes in the metabolism of life. [pp.36-37] 6. __________ use some assortment of the simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides for building all the biological molecules they require for their structure and functioning. [p.36] 7. __________ make specific metabolic reactions proceed faster than they would on their own and different __________ mediate different reactions. [p.37] 8. Be able to define the following: functional-group transfer, electron transfer, rearrangement, condensation, and cleavage. [p.37] 9. Define and distinguish between condensation reactions and hydrolysis; cite a general example. [p.37] 10. Define carbohydrates; be able to list their two general functions. [p.38] 11. Most carbohydrates consist of __________, __________, and __________ in a 1:2:1 ratio. [p.38] 12. Name and generally define the three classes of carbohydrates. [p.38] 13. A __________ means �one monomer of sugar�; be able to give common examples and their functions. [p.38] 14. An __________ is a short chain of covalently bonded sugar monomers; be able to give examples of well-known disaccharides and their functions. [p.38] 15. A __________ is a straight or branched chain of hundreds or thousands of sugar monomers, of the same or different kinds; be able to give common examples and their functions. [pp.38-39] 16. Define lipids; list their general functions. [p.40] 17. Describe a �fatty acid�; a __________ molecule has one, two, or three fatty acid tails attached to a backbone of glycerol; distinguish a saturated fatty acid from an unsaturated fatty acid. [p.40] 18. Describe the structure of triglycerides; list examples and their functions. [p.40] 19. A __________ has two fatty acid tails and a hydrophilic head attached to a glycerol backbone; list examples and their cellular functions. [p.41] 20. Define sterols, and describe their chemical structure; cite the importance of the sterols known as cholesterol and the steroids. [p.41] 21. Lipids called __________ have long-chain fatty acids, tightly packed and linked to long-chain alcohols or to carbon rings; list examples and their functions. [p.41] 22. Describe protein structure and cite their general functions; be able to sketch the three general parts of any amino acid. [p.42] 23. Describe how the primary, secondary, third, and fourth structural levels of proteins results in complex three-dimensional structures. [pp.42-45] 24. Distinguish lipoproteins from glycoproteins. [p.45] 25. __________ refers to the loss of a molecule�s three-dimensional shape through disruption of the weak bonds responsible for it. [p.45] 26. List the three parts of every nucleotide. [p.46] 27. The nucleic acids __________ and __________, built of nucleotides, are the basis of inheritance and reproduction. [p.46] 28. A __________ is an organic compound, a normal metabolic product of one species, but its chemical effects can harm or kill individuals of a different species that come in contact with it. [p.47] 29. Distinguish between herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides. [p.47] Answers: 1. organic 2. four 3. hydrocarbon 4. functional 5. n/a 6. Cells 7. Enzymes, enzymes 8. n/a 9. n/a 10. n/a 11. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen 12. n/a 13. monosaccharide 14. oligosaccharide 15. polysaccharide 16. n/a 17. fat 18. n/a 19. phospholipid 20. n/a 21. waxes 22. n/a 23. n/a 24. n/a 25. Denaturation 26. n/a 27. DNA (or RNA), RNA (or DNA) 28. toxin 29. n/a

Biology Chapter 4 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 4 1. Be able to list the three generalizations that together constitute the cell theory. [p.51] 2. List and describe the three major regions that all cells have in common. [p.52] 3. Cytoplasm is everything between the plasma membrane and the region of __________. [p.52] 4. A __________ cell lacks a nucleus. [p.52] 5. Describe the lipid bilayer arrangement for the plasma membrane. [pp.52-53] 6. Describe and list the function(s) of the following membrane proteins: transport, receptor, recognition, and adhesion. [p.53] 7. Cell size is necessarily limited because its volume increases with the __________ but surface area increases only with the __________. [p.54] 8. Briefly describe the operating principles of light microscopes, phase-contrast microscopes, scanning tunneling microscopes, transmission electron microscopes, and scanning electron microscopes. [pp.54-55] 9. Briefly describe the cellular location and function of the organelles typical of most eukaryotic cells: nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, various vesicles, mitochondria, and the cytoskeleton. [p.56] 10. In eukaryotic cells, __________ separate different incompatible chemical reactions in space and time. [p.56] 11. Describe the nature of the nuclear envelope and relate its function to its structure. [pp.60-61] 12. __________ are sites where the protein and RNA subunits of ribosomes are assembled. [pp.60-61] 13. __________ is the cell's collection of DNA molecules and associated proteins; a __________ is an individual DNA molecule and associated proteins. [p.61] 14. Explain how the endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth types), peroxisomes, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, and a variety of vesicles function together as the cytomembrane system. [pp.62-63] 15. Describe the function of exocytic vesicles; also describe the function of endocytic vesicles. [p.62] 16. __________ are organelles of intracellular digestion that bud from Golgi membranes of animal cells and some fungal cells. [p.63] 17. Define and describe the function of peroxisomes. [p.63] 18. Within __________, energy stored in organic molecules is released by enzymes and used to form many ATP molecules in the presence of oxygen. [p.64] 19. Describe the detailed structure of the chloroplast, the site of photosynthesis (include grana and stroma). [p.65] 20. Give the general function of the following plant organelles: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, and the central vacuole. [p.65] 21. Elements of the __________ give eukaryotic cells their internal organization, overall shape, and capacity to move. [p.66] 22. List the three major structural elements of the cytoskeleton and give the general function of each. [p.66] 23. Describe the general functions of motor proteins and crosslinking proteins. [p.66] 24. Amoeba proteus, a soft-bodied protistan, crawls on __________. [p.66] 25. Both cilia and flagella have an internal microtubule arrangement called the "__________" array. [p.67] 26. A centriole remains at the base of a completed microtubule-producing center where it is often called a __________ __________. [p.67] 27. Distinguish a primary cell wall from a secondary cell wall in leafy plants. [p.68] 28. Describe the location and function of plasmodesmata. [p.69] 29. __________ junctions link the cells of epithelial tissues; __________ junctions join cells in tissues of the skin, heart, and other organs subjected to stretching; __________ junctions link the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. [p.69] 30. Describe the structure of a generalized prokaryotic cell. Include the bacterial flagellum, nucleoid, pili, capsule, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. [p.70] 31. List the two kingdoms of prokaryotic cells. [p.70] Answers: 1. n/a 2. n/a 3. DNA 4. prokaryotic 5. n/a 6. n/a 7. cube, square 8. n/a 9. n/a 10. organelles 11. n/a 12. Nucleoli 13. Chromatin, chromosome 14. n/a 15. n/a 16. Lysosomes 17. n/a 18. mitochondria 19. n/a 20. n/a. 21. cytoskeleton 22. n/a 23. n/a 24. pseudopods 25. 9+2 26. basal body 27. n/a 28. n/a 29. Tight, adhering, gap 30. n/a 31. n/a

Chapter 5 Answers Biology Chapter 5 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 5 1. __________ is the controlled capacity to acquire and use energy for stockpiling, breaking apart, building, and eliminating substances in ways that contribute to survival and reproduction. [p.75] 2. Define energy; be able to state the first and second laws of thermodynamics. [pp.76-77] 3. __________ is a measure of the degree of randomness or disorder of systems. [p.77] 4. Explain how the world of life maintains a high degree of organization. [pp.77-78] 5. Reactions that show a net loss in energy are said to be __________; reactions that show a net gain in energy are said to be __________. [p.78] 6. ATP is composed of __________, a five-carbon sugar, three __________ groups, and __________, a nitrogen-containing compound. [pp.78-79] 7. Adding a phosphate to a molecule is called __________. [pp.78-79] 8. Explain what a gradient is in general; then describe (a) concentration gradients, (b) pressure gradients, and (c) electric gradients. [p.80] 9. Explain the functioning of the ATP/ADP cycle. [pp.80-81] 10. ATP directly or indirectly delivers __________ to almost all biosynthetic pathways. [p.81] 11. Give the function of each of the following participants in metabolic pathways: reactants, intermediates, enzymes, cofactors, and end products. [p.81] 12. Cite one example of a coenzyme. [p.81] 13. What is the function of metabolic pathways in cellular chemistry? [p.81] 14. Explain the effects of enzymes on activation energy. [pp.82-83] 15. Describe the induced-fit model. [p.83] 16. Describe the control mechanism known as feedback inhibition. [p.84] 17. What are "allosteric enzymes," and what is their function? [p.84] 18. Explain what happens to enzymes if temperature and pH continually increase. [pp.84-85] 19. Distinguish diffusion from osmosis, and active transport from passive transport. [pp.86],88 20. Describe and contrast exocytosis and endocytosis. Explain the role of vesicle formation in both processes. [p.87] 21. Describe phagocytosis and describe the kind of phagocytosis that occurs in your body. [p.87] 22. Water tends to diffuse from (select one) __ hypertonic __ hypotonic solutions to (select one) __ hypertonic __ hypotonic solutions. [p.89] Answers: 1. Metabolism 2. n/a 3. Entropy 4. n/a 5. exergonic, endergonic 6. ribose, phosphate, adenine 7. phosphorylation 8. n/a 9. n/a 10. energy 11. n/a 12. n/a 13. n/a 14. n/a 15. n/a 16. n/a 17. n/a 18. n/a 19. n/a 20. n/a 21. n/a 22. n/a

Chapter 6 Answers Biology Chapter 6 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 6 1. List the major stages of photosynthesis and state what occurs in those sets of reactions. [p.93] 2. Study the general equation for photosynthesis as shown in the main text until you can remember the reactants and products. Reproduce the equation from memory on another piece of paper. [p.93] 3. Describe the structural details of the green leaf. Begin with the layers of a leaf cross-section and complete your description with the minute structural sites within the chloroplast where the major sets of photosynthetic reactions occur. Explain how each of the reactants needed in various phases of photosynthesis arrive at the place where they are used. Explain what happens to the products of photosynthesis. [pp.94-95] 4. Describe how the pigments found on thylakoid membranes are organized into photosystems and how they relate to photon light energy. [p.97,98] 5. Describe the role that chlorophylls and the other chloroplast pigments play in the light-dependent reactions. After consulting Figure 6.6 of the main text, state which colors of the visible spectrum are absorbed by (a) chlorophyll a , (b) chlorophyll b , and (c) carotenoids. [pp.96-98] 6. State what T. Englemann's 1882 experiment with Spirogyra revealed.[p.92] 7. Two energy-carrying molecules produced in the noncyclic pathways are __________ and __________; explain why these molecules are necessary for the light-independent reactions. [pp.98-99] 8. After evolution of the noncyclic pathway, __________ accumulated in the atmosphere and made __________ respiration possible. [p.99] 9. Explain how the chemiosmotic model is related to thylakoid compartments and the production of ATP. [p.100] 10. Explain why the light-independent reactions are called by that name. [p.101] 11. Describe the Calvin-Benson cycle as it is related to the four phases shown right before the Self-Quiz of this chapter. [p.101] 12. Describe the mechanism by which C4 plants thrive under hot, dry conditions; distinguish this CO2 - capturing mechanism from that of C3 plants. [p.102] 13. Cacti are CAM plants adapted to survive desert conditions by using a mechanism unlike that of C4 plants. Describe the mechanism. [p.103] 14. State some of the observations that support the hypothesis that life on Earth originated near hydrothermal vents. [p.103] 15. Which creatures constitute the "pastures of the seas"? What benefits do they provide for us? How might industrial wastes, fertilizers and herbicides affect these photoautotrophs? [p.104] Answers: 1. n/a 2. n/a 3. n/a 4. n/a 5. n/a 6. n/a 7. ATP (NADPH), NADPH (ATP) 8. O2 (oxygen), aerobic 9. n/a 10. n/a 11. n/a 12. n/a 13. n/a 14. n/a 15. n/a

Chapter 7 Answers Biology Chapter 7 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 7 1. What happens to the CO2 and H2O produced during acetyl-CoA formation and the Krebs cycle? [p.109-110] 2. No matter what the source of energy might be, organisms must convert it to __________, a form of chemical energy that can drive metabolic reactions. [pp.109-110] 3. Give the overall equation for the aerobic respiratory route; indicate where energy occurs in the equation. [p.110] 4. In the first of the three stages of aerobic respiration, __________ is partially degraded to pyruvate. [p.112] 5. Glycolysis occurs in the __________ of the cell. [p.112] 6. Explain the purpose served by molecules of ATP reacting first with glucose and then with fructose-6-phosphate in the early part of glycolysis (see Figure 7.4 in the text). [pp.112-113] 7. Four ATP molecules are produced by __________-__________ phosphorylation for every two used during glycolysis. Consult Figure 7.4 in the text. [pp.112-113] 8. Glycolysis produces __________ (number) NADH, __________ (number) ATP (net) and __________ (number) pyruvate molecules for each glucose molecule entering the reactions. [p.113] 9. Consult Figures 7.4 and 7.6 in the text. State the events that happen during the preparatory steps and explain how the process of acetyl-CoA formation relates glycolysis to the Krebs cycle. [pp.113,115] 10. Explain, in general terms, the role of oxygen in aerobic respiration. [p.114] 11. Consult Figure 7.5 in the text and predict what will happen to the NADH produced during acetyl-CoA formation and the Krebs cycle. [p.114] 12. State which factors determine whether the pyruvate (pyruvic acid) produced at the end of glycolysis will enter into the alcoholic fermentation pathway, the lactate fermentation pathway, or the acetyl-CoA formation pathway. [pp.114,118] 13. By the end of the second stage of aerobic respiration, which includes the __________ cycle, the carbon chain of __________ has been partly degraded to carbon dioxide; the waste product __________ is produced at the end of electron trasport phosphorylation. [p.115] 14. Be able to account for the total net yield of thirty-six ATP molecules produced through aerobic respiration; that is, state how many ATPs are produced in glycolysis, acetyl-CoA formation, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport phosphorylation. [pp.115,117] 15. Explain how chemiosmotic theory operates in the mitochondrion to account for the production of ATP molecules. [pp.116-117] 16. Briefly describe the process of electron transport phosphorylation by stating what reactants are needed and what the products are. State how many ATP molecules are produced through operation of the transport system. [pp.116-117] 17. List some places where there is very little oxygen present and where anaerobic organisms might be found. [pp.118-119] 18. Describe what happens to pyruvate in anaerobic organisms. Then explain the necessity for pyruvate to be converted to a fermentative product. [pp.118-119] 19. You have been fasting for three days, drinking only water and eating no solid food. Tell which stored molecules your body is using to provide energy, and describe how that is occurring. [pp.120-121] 20. After reading "Perspective on Life" in the main text, outline the supposed evolutionary sequence of energy-extraction processes. [p.122] 21. Closely scrutinize the diagram of the carbon cycle in the Commentary; be able to reproduce the cycle from memory. [p.122] Answers: 1. n/a 2. ATP 3. n/a 4. glucose 5. cytoplasm 6. n/a 7. substrate-level 8. two, two, two 9. n/a 10. n/a 11. n/a 12. n/a 13. Krebs, glucose, water 14. n/a 15. n/a 16. n/a 17. n/a 18. n/a 19. n/a 20. n/a 21. n/a

Biology Chapter 8 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 8 1. Define the word reproduction. [p.126] 2. Mitosis and meiosis refer to the division of the cell's __________. [p.128] 3. Distinguish between somatic cells and germ cells as to their location and function. [p.128] 4. The eukaryotic chromosome is composed of __________ and __________. [p.128] 5. The two attached threads of a duplicated chromosome are known as sister __________. [p.128] 6. Characterize the organization of chromosomes using the terms histones and nucleosome. [p.128] 7. The __________ is a small region with docking sites for the microtubules with roles in nuclear division. [p.128] 8. Each species has a characteristic __________ number, the sum total in cells of a given type. [p.128] 9. Any cell having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of a species is a __________ cell; eggs and sperms of such organisms have only one of each type of chromosome and are said to be __________ [p.129] 10. Be able to list and describe, in order, the various activities occurring in the eukaryotic cell life cycle. [p.130] 11. Interphase of the cell cycle consists of G1, __________, and G2. [p.130] 12. S is the time in the cell cycle when __________ replication occurs. [p.130] 13. Describe the structure and function of the spindle apparatus. [pp.131-132] 14. Explain the value of the plant Colchicum to cellular scientists. [p.134] 15. Describe the number and movements of centrioles in the cell division of some cells. [p.132] 16. The "__________" is a time of transition when the nuclear envelope breaks up into tiny, flattened vesicles prior to metaphase. [p.132] 17. Be able to give a detailed description of the cellular events occurring in the prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase of mitosis. [pp.132-133] 18. Compare and contrast cytokinesis as it occurs in plant and animal cell division; use the following concepts: cleavage furrow, microfilaments at the cell's midsection, and cell plate formation. [pp.134-135] 19. Explain how cells from Henrietta Lacks continue to benefit humans everywhere more than forty years after her death. [p.136] Answers: 1. n/a 2. nucleus 3. n/a 4. DNA (proteins), proteins (DNA) 5. chromatids 6. n/a 7. centromere 8. chromosome 9. diploid, haploid 10. n/a 11. S 12. DNA 13. n/a 14. n/a 15. n/a 16. prometaphase 17. n/a 18. n/a 19. n/a

Biology Chapter 9 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 9 Distinguish between germ cells and gametes. [p.139] "One parent alone produces offspring, and each offspring inherits the same number and kinds of genes as its parent" describes __________ reproduction. [p.140] __________ reproduction involves meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization. [p.140] __________ divides chromosomes into separate parcels not once but twice prior to cell division. [p.140] Describe the relationship between the following terms: homologous chromosomes, diploid number, and haploid number. [pp.140-141] If the diploid chromosome number for a particular plant species is 18, the haploid gamete number is __________. [p.141] During interphase a germ cell duplicates its DNA; a duplicated chromosome consists of two DNA molecules that remain attached to a constriction called the __________. [p.141] As long as the two DNA molecules remain attached, they are referred to as __________ __________ of the chromosome. [p.141] During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair; each homologue consists of __________ chromatids. [p.141] During meiosis II, the two sister __________ of each __________ are separated from each other. [p.141] __________ __________ breaks up old combinations of alleles and puts new ones together during prophase I of meiosis. [p.145] The __________ attachment and subsequent positioning of each pair of maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase I lead to different __________ of maternal and paternal traits in each generation of offspring. [p.145] Meiosis in the animal life cycle results in haploid __________; meiosis in the plant life cycle results in haploid __________. [p.146] Using the special terms for the cells at the various stages, describe spermatogenesis in male animals and oogenesis in female animals. [p.147] Crossing over, the distribution of random mixes of homologous chromosomes into gametes, and fertilization contribute to __________ in the traits of offspring. [p.147] Mitotic cell division produces only __________; meiotic cell division, in conjunction with subsequent fertilization, promotes __________ in traits among offspring. [p.148] Be able to list three ways that meiosis promotes variation in offspring. [p.148] Answers: n/a asexual Sexual Meiosis n/a nine (9) centromere sister chromatids two (2) chromatids, homologue Crossing over random, combinations gametes, spores n/a recombination clones, variation n/a

Biology Chapter 10 Answers Review Questions - Chapter 10 What was the prevailing method of explaining the inheritance of traits before Mendel�s work with pea plants? [p.154] Garden pea plants are naturally __________-fertilizing, but Mendel took steps to __________-fertilize them for his experiments. [p.155] __________ are units of information about specific traits; they are passed from parents to offspring. [p.155] What is the general term applied to the location of a gene on a chromosome? [p.155] Define allele; how many types of alleles are present in the genotypes Tt? tt? TT? [p.155] Explain the meaning of a true-breeding lineage. [p.155] When two alleles of a pair are identical, it is a __________ condition; if the two alleles are different, this is a __________ condition. [p.155] Distinguish a dominant allele from a recessive allele. __________ refers to the genes present in an individual; __________ refers to an individual's observable traits. [p.155] Offspring of __________ crosses are heterozygous for the one trait being studied. [p.156] Explain why probability is useful to genetics. [p.157] Be able to use the Punnett-square method of solving genetics problems. [p.157] Define the testcross and cite an example. [p.157] Mendel's theory of __________ states that during meiosis, the two genes of each pair separate from each other and end up in different gametes. [p.157] Describe the testcross. [p.157] Be able to solve dihybrid genetic crosses. [pp.158-159] Mendel's theory of __________ __________ states that gene pairs on homologous chromosomes tend to be sorted into one gamete or another independently of how gene pairs on other chromosomes are sorted out. [p.159] Distinguish between complete dominance, incomplete dominance, and codominance. [p.160] Define multiple allele system and cite an example. [p.160] Explain why sickle-cell anemia is a good example of pleiotropy. [p.161] Gene interaction involving two alleles of a gene that mask expression of another gene's alleles is called __________. [p.162] List possible explanations for less predictable trait variations that are observed. [pp.164-165] List two human traits that are explained by continuous variation. [pp.164-165] Himalayan rabbits and garden hydrangeas are good examples of environmental effects on __________ expression. [p.166] Answers: n/a self, cross Genes n/a n/a n/a homozygous, heterozygous n/a Genotype, phenotype monohybrid n/a n/a n/a segregation n/a n/a independent assortment n/a n/a n/a epistasis n/a n/a phenotypic (phenotype)


Biologyapplications reviewquestions Biology Chapter 1 Review Questions 1. Why is it difficult to formulate a simple definition of life? 2. Name the molecule of inheritance in cells. DNA 3. Write out simple definitions of the following terms. a. cell A cell is the smallest unit of organization having a capacity to survive and reproduce on its own, given DNA instructions suitable conditions, building blocks, and energy inputs. b. metabolism is each living cell has the capacity to obtain and convert energy from its surroundings and use energy to maintain itself, grow, and make more cells. c. energy is Energy, the capacity to do work, is transferred throughout the universe. d. ATP helps drives hundreds of events by transferring energy to metabolic workers. 4. How do organisms sense changes in their surroundings? Organisms respond so exquisitely to energy changes that their internal operating conditions remain within tolerable limits called a state of homeostasis. 5. Study Figure 1.5. Then on your own arrange and define the levels of biological organization. The hierarchy of biological organization includes cells, multicelled organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. 6. Study figure 1.6. Then on your own make a sketch of the one way flow of energy and the cycling of materials through the biosphere. To the side of the sketch write out definitions of producers, consumers, and decomposers. Producers which are plants and other organisms that make their own food. Animals are consumers. Decomposers break down sugars, and other biological molecules to simpler materials, some of which is cycled back to the producers. 7. List the shared characteristics of life. 8. What are the two parts of the scientific name for each kind of organism? Bacteria are prokaryotic (lacking a nucleus); all other kingdoms are eukaryotic (having a true nucleus). All organisms can be identified by a genus and species name. 9. List the six kingdoms of species as outlined in this chapter. Also list some of their general characteristics. Six kingdoms are presently recognized: a. Archaebacteria�the most ancient of bacteria, many anaerobic. b. Eubacteria�more recently evolved bacteria. c. Protista�one-celled organisms; producers or consumers. d. Fungi�molds, mushrooms; mostly decomposers. e. Plantae�familiar multicellular plants; mostly producers. f. Animalia�multicellular animals from sponges to humans; consumers. 10. Define mutation and adaptive trait. Explain the connection between mutation and the diversity of life. A. Mutation�Original Source of Variation Hereditary instructions are encoded in molecules of DNA. Variations in hereditary instructions arise through mutations. Mutations are changes in the kind, structure, sequence, or number of parts of DNA. Many mutations are harmful. Some may be harmless or even beneficial. An adaptive trait is any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions. 11. Write brief definitions of evolution, artificial selection, and natural selection. Evolution Defined The frequencies of genes and the effects they cause can change over time. Evolution is the change that characterizes populations through successive generations. artificial selection is Selection of traits among a population under contrived conditions. Natural selection is Microevolutionary process; the outcome of differences in survival and reproduction among individuals that differ in details of heritable traits. Natural Selection Defined Charles Darwin reasoned that the practice of artificial selection used by pigeon breeders could serve as a model for his theory of natural selection. The main points of his theory are these: Members vary in form and behavior; much of the variation is heritable. Some varieties of heritable traits will improve survival and reproductive chances; i.e., they are more adaptive. Those with improved chances will be more likely to reproduce (differential re�produc�tion) and pass the adaptive traits on with greater frequency in future gener�ations (natural selection). Any population evolves when some forms of traits increase in frequency and others decrease or disappear over generations. Evolutionary processes help explain life's diversity. 12. Define and distinguish between a. hypothesis and prediction b. observational test and experimental test c. inductive and deductive logic d. speculation and scientific theory hypothesis is In science, a possible explanation of a phenomenon, one that has the potential to be proved false by experimental tests. prediction is Statement about what you should observe in nature if you were to go looking for a particular phenomenon; the if-then process. inductive logic is a Pattern of thinking; deriving a general statement from specific observations. deductive logic is a Pattern of thinking; making inferences about specific consequences or predictions that must follow from a hypothesis. Test is A means to determine the accuracy of a prediction, as by conducting experimental or observational tests and by developing models. Scientific tests are made under controlled conditions in nature or the laboratory. scientific theory is An explanation of the cause or causes of range of related phenomena. It has been rigorously tested but is still open to tests, revision, and tentative acceptance or rejection. 13. With respect to experimental tests define variable, control group, and expermental group. Of an experimental test, a specific aspect of an object or event that may differ over time and among individuals. A single variable is directly manipulated in an attempt to support or disprove a prediction. control group is A group used as a standard for comparison with an experimental group; ideally it is identical with the experimental group in all respects except for one variable being studied. 14. What does sampling error mean? Use of a sample or subset of a population, an event, or some other aspect of nature for an experimental group that is not large enough to be representative of the whole.

Biology Chapter 2 Review Questions 1. What is an element? Name for elements and their symbols that make up more than 95 percent of the body weight of all living organisms. 2. Define atom, isotope, and radioisotope. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that is unique to a particular element. Atoms are composed of three particles: Protons (p+) are part of the atomic nucleus and have a positive charge. Their quantity is called the atomic number (unique for each element). Neutrons are also a part of the nucleus; they are neutral. Protons plus neutrons = atomic mass. Electrons (e�) have a negative charge. Their quantity is equal to that of the protons. They move around the nucleus. Atomic numbers and mass numbers give us an idea of whether and how substances will react. Isotopes are Variant Forms of Atoms Atoms with the same number of protons for example, carbon with six but a different number of neutrons carbon can have six, seven, or eight are called isotopes (12C, 13C, 14C ). Some radioactive isotopes are unstable and tend to decay into more stable atoms. They can be used to date rocks and fossils. Some can be used as tracers to follow the path of an atom in a series of reactions or to diagnose disease. 3. How many electrons can occupy each orbital around an atomic nucleus? Using the shell model, explain how the orbitals available to electrons are distributed in an atom? Orbitals are like volumes of space around the atomic nucleus in which electrons are likely to be at any instant. Each orbital contains one or two electrons. Orbitals can be thought of as occupying shells around the nucleus. The shell closest to the nucleus has one orbital holding a maximum of two electrons. The next shell can have four orbitals with two electrons each for a total of eight electrons. A chemical bond is a union between the electron structures of atoms. Atoms with �unfilled� orbitals in their outermost shell tend to be reactive with other atoms. 4. Define molecule, compound, and mixture. A molecule is a bonded unit of two or more (same or different) atoms. A compound is a substance in which the relative percentages of two or more elements never vary. In a mixture, two or more elements simply intermingle in proportions the can vary. 5. Distinguish between a. ionic and hydrogen bonds In an ionic bond, (+) and (�) ions are linked by mutual attraction of opposite charges�for example, NaCl. In a hydrogen bond, an atom of a molecule interacts weakly with a hydrogen atom already taking part in a polar covalent bond. b. polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. In a polar covalent bond, because atoms share the electron unequally, there is a slight difference in charge between the two poles of the bond; water is an example. In a nonpolar covalent bond, atoms share electrons equally. c. hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Polar substances are hydrophilic (water loving); nonpolar ones are hydrophobic (water dreading) and are repelled by water. 6. If a water molecule has no net charge, then why does it attract polar molecules and repel nonpolar ones? 7. Label the atoms in each water molecule in the sketch below. Indicate which parts of each molecule carry a slight positive charge + and which carry a slight negative charge -. Water is a polar molecule because of a slightly negative charge at the oxygen end and a slightly positive charge at the hydrogen end. Water molecules can form hydrogen bonds with each other. 8. Define acid and base. Then describe the behavior of a weak acid in solutions having a high or low pH value. Acids, Bases, and Buffers The pH Scale pH is a measure of the H+ concentration in a solution; the greater the H+ the lower the pH scale. The scale extends from 0 (acidic) to 7 (neutral) to 14 (basic). How Do Acids Differ From Bases? A substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution is an acid�for example, HCl. Substances that release ions such as (OH�) that can combine with hydrogen ions are called bases. Buffers Against Shifts in pH Buffer molecules combine with, or release, H+ to prevent drastic changes in pH. Bicarbonate is one of the body�s major buffers. Salts A salt is an ionic compound formed when an acid reacts with a base; example: HCl + NaOH ��> NaCl + H2O. Salts dissociate into useful ions (examples: Na+ and Ca++) in body fluids.

Biology Chapter 3 Review Questions 1. Define organic compound. Name the type of chemical bond that predominates in the backbone of such a compound. Organic Compounds are the Molecules of Life These include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. They are used as energy sources, structural materials, metabolic workers, and carriers of hereditary information. These molecules are organic compounds, with hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon atoms. Carbon's Bonding Behavior\ Oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon are the most abundant elements in living things. Much of the hydrogen and oxygen are linked as water. Carbon can form four covalent bonds with other atoms to form organic molecules of several configurations. The orientations of the atoms attached to a carbon backbone give rise to the three-dimensional shapes and functions of biological molecules. 2. Define hydrocarbon. Also define functional group and give an example. A hydrocarbon, which has only hydrogen atoms attached to a carbon backbone, does not break apart easily; they form very stable portions of most biological molecules. Functional groups such as the �OH of alcohols are atoms or groups of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon backbone they convey distinct properties, such as solubility, to the complete molecule. 3. Name the molecules of life and the families of small organic compounds from which they are built. Do they break apart most easily at their hydrocarbon portion or at functional groups? Enzymes speed up specific metabolic reactions by these mechanisms: Functional-group transfer: one molecule gives up a functional group, which another molecule accepts. Electron transfer: one or more electrons stripped from one molecule are donated to another molecule. Rearrangement: a juggling of internal bonds converts one type of organic compound into another. Condensation: through covalent bonding, two molecules combine to form a larger molecule. Cleavage: a molecule splits into two smaller ones. 4. Describe the difference between a condensation reaction and hydrolysis. In condensation reactions, small molecules can combine to form larger ones; for example, sugar monomers combine to form starch polymers. In hydrolysis reactions, one larger molecule is split by the addition of H+ and OH� (from water) into its components. 5. Select one of the carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids described in this chapter. Speculate on how its functional groups and bonds between the carbon atoms in its backbone contribute to its final shape and function. Lipids are characterized by their inability to dissolve in water. Lipids are composed mostly of hydrocarbon. They form the basic structures of membranes and have roles in energy metabolism. 6. Which item listed includes all of the other items listed? a. triglyceride c. wax e. lipid b. fatty acid d. sterol f. phospholipid 7. Explain how hemoglobin's three dimensional shape arises Hemoglobin is a globular protein consisting of four folded chains, each with a heme group. High temperatures or chemicals can cause the three-dimensional shape to be disrupted. starting with the primary structure of its four chains.

Biology Chapter 4 1. State the three key points of the cell theory. The cell theory: has three generalizations: 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life. 3. The continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells. 2. Suppose you wish to observe the three dimensional surface of an insect's eye. Would you see more details with the aid of compound light microscope, transmission electron microscope or scanning electron microscope? compound light microscope. 3. plant cell and a animal cell differences and similarities of cells? Defining Features of Eukaryotic Cells A. Major Cellular Components Organelles form compartmentalized portions of the cytoplasm. All eukaryotic cells contain organelles. The nucleus controls access to DNA and permits easier packing of DNA during cell division. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) modifies newly formed polypeptide chains and is also involved with lipid synthesis. The Golgi body modifies, sorts, and ships proteins; they also play a role in the synthesis of lipids for secretion or internal use. Vesicles transport material between organelles and function in intracellular digestion. Mitochondria are efficient factories of ATP production. Cells also contain non-membranous structures: Ribosomes, �free� or attached to membranes, participate in assembly of polypeptide chains. The cytoskeleton helps to determine cell shape, internal organization, and movements. Organelles separate reactions with respect to time (allowing proper sequencing) and space (allowing incompatible reactions to occur in close proximity). Which Organelles Are Typical of Plants? Although it is labeled "typical," no one diagram can speak for all variations in plant cells. Which Organelles Are Typical of Animals?a all variations in animal cells. Also notice the differences between plant and animal cells, particularly the cell wall and large central vacuole of plant cells. Eukaryotic Cells A. Major Cellular Components Organelles form compartmentalized portions of the cytoplasm. All eukaryotic cells contain organelles. Eukaryotic cells are defined by their possession of a membrane-bound nucleus. Prokaryotic cells have no defined nucleus; the only representatives are bacteria. 4. Parts of a bacterial cell are 5. Describe three features that all cells have in common. Defining Features of Eukaryotic Cells A. Major Cellular Components 1. Organelles form compartmentalized portions of the cytoplasm. 2. All eukaryotic cells contain organelles. a. The nucleus controls access to DNA and permits easier packing of DNA during cell division. b. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) modifies newly formed polypeptide chains and is also involved with lipid synthesis. c. The Golgi body modifies, sorts, and ships proteins; they also play a role in the synthesis of lipids for secretion or internal use. d. Vesicles transport material between organelles and function in intracellular digestion. e. Mitochondria are efficient factories of ATP production. 3. Cells also contain non-membranous structures: b. Ribosomes, �free� or attached to membranes, participate in assembly of polypeptide chains. g. The cytoskeleton helps to determine cell shape, internal organization, and movements. Organelles separate reactions with respect to time (allowing proper sequencing) and space (allowing incompatible reactions to occur in close proximity). Organelles Are Typical of Plants? Which Organelles Are Typical of Animals? notice the differences between plant and animal cells, particularly the cell wall and large central vacuole of plant cells. Prokaryotic Cells The term prokaryotic (literally, "before the nucleus") indicates existence of bacteria before evolution of cells with a nucleus; bacterial DNA is clustered in a distinct region of the cytoplasm. Bacteria are some of the smallest and simplest cells. A somewhat rigid cell wall supports the cell and surrounds the plasma membrane, which regulates transport into and out of the cell. Ribosomes, protein assembly sites, are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Bacterial flagella (without a 9+2 array) provide movement; pili on the cell surface help bacteria attach to surfaces and one another. 6. Briefly descibe nucleus, nuclear envelope, and nucleolus. The Nucleus The nucleus isolates DNA, which contains the code for protein assembly, from the sites (ribosomes in cytoplasm) where proteins will be assembled. Localization of the DNA makes it easier to sort out hereditary instructions when the time comes for a cell to divide. The membranous boundary of the nucleus helps control the exchange of signals and substances between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nuclear Envelope The nuclear envelope consists of two lipid bilayers with pores. It surrounds the nucleoplasm within. On the inner surface are attachment sites for protein filaments that anchor the DNA molecules and keep them organized. Nucleolus Located within the nucleus, the nucleolus appears as a darker globular mass. It is a region where subunits of ribosomes are prefabricated before ship�ment out of the nucleus. 7. Define chromosome and chromatin. A chromosome is an individual DNA molecule and its associated proteins. Chromatin refers to the cell's total collection of DNA and associated proteins. 8. Which organelles are part of the cytomembrane system? Some of the polypeptide chains assembled on the ribosomes are stockpiled in the cytoplasm. Others pass through the cytomembrane system, where they take on their final form and become packaged in vesicles for use within the cell or for export. 9. Is this statement true or false. Plant cells have chloroplasts but not mitochondria True because Specialized Plant Organelles Chloroplasts and Other Plastids Chloroplasts are oval or disk shaped, are bounded by a double membrane, and are criti�cal to the process of photosynthesis. In the stacked disks (grana), pigments and enzymes trap sunlight energy to form ATP. Sugars are formed in the fluid substance (stroma) surrounding the stacks. Pigments such as chlorophyll (green) confer distinctive colors to the chloroplasts. Chromoplasts have carotenoids, which impart red-to-yellow colors to plant parts, but no chlorophyll. 10. What are the functions of the central vacuole? Central Vacuole In the mature plant, the central vacuole may occupy 50�90% of the cell interior. It stores amino acids, sugars, ions, and wastes. The vacuole enlarges during growth and greatly increases the cell�s outer surface area. The cytoplasm is forced into a very narrow zone between the central vacuole and the plasma membrane. 11. Define cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is an interconnected system of fibers, threads, and lattices that extends between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. It gives cells their internal organization, overall shape, and capacity to move. The main components are microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate fila�ments�all assembled from protein subunits. Some portions are transient, such as the �spindle� microtubules used in chromosome movement during cell division; others are permanent, such as filaments operational in muscle contraction. 12. What gives rise to the 9 + 2 array of cilia and flagella. Flagella are quite long, are usually not numerous, and are found on one-celled protistans and animal sperm cells. Cilia are shorter and more numerous and can provide locomotion for free-living cells or may move surrounding water and particles if the ciliated cell is anchored. Both of these extensions of the plasma membrane have a 9 + 2 cross-sectional array (arising from centrioles) and are useful in propulsion. 13. Cell walls are typical of which organisms bacteria, protistans, fungi, plants, animals? Are the walls impermeable? bacteria, plants animals. 14. In certain plant cells, is a secondary wall deposited inside or outside the surface of the primary wall? inside. Eukaryotic Cell Walls Many single-celled eukaryotes have a cell wall, a supportive and protective structure outside the plasma membrane Microscopic pores allow water and solute passage to and from underlying plasma membrane. In plants, bundles of cellulose strands form the primary cell wall, which is more pliable than the more rigid secondary wall that is laid down inside it later. Plasmodesmata are the channels that cross the adjacent walls to connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. 15. In multicelled organisms coordinated interactions depend on linkages and communications between cells. What types of junctions occur between adjacent animal cells? Plant Cells? Plasmodesmata are the channels that cross the adjacent walls to connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. Matrixes Between Animal Cells This is a meshwork that holds animal cells and tissues together and influences how the cells will divide and metabolize. Cartilage consists of cells and proteins (collagen and elastin) scattered in a ground substance (modified polysaccharides). Cell-to-Cell Junctions At tissue surfaces, cells link together to form a barrier between the interior and exterior. Three cell-to-cell junctions are common. Tight junctions link cells of epithelial tissues to form seals. Adhering junctions are like spot welds in tissues subject to stretching. Gap junctions link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells; they form communication channels.

Biology Chapter 5 1. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Does life violate the second law? First law of thermodynamics states that the total amount of energy in the universe is con�stant; it cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change form. Energy cannot be produced by a cell; it can only be borrowed from someplace else. The One-Way Flow of Energy Energy can be of high quality, that is, highly concentrated and usable; or it can be of low quality, such as heat that is released into the universe. Second law of thermodynamics states that the spontaneous direction of energy flow is from high- to low-quality forms. Each conversion results in production of energy (usually heat) that is unavailable for work. As systems lose energy, they become more disorganized; the measure of this disorder is called entropy. The world of life (plant and animal) maintains a high degree of organization only because it is being resupplied with energy from the sun. 2. Define and give a few examples of potential energy. Potential energy is the capacity to do work; in molecules it is called chemical energy. 3. How does ATP prime a molecule to enter a reaction? The Role of ATP Before cells can use the energy of sunlight or that stored in carbohydrates, they must transfer the energy to molecules of ATP. ATP is composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP transfers energy to many different chemical reactions; almost all metabolic path�ways directly or indirectly run on energy supplied by ATP. Energy input links phosphate to ADP to produce ATP. ATP can donate a phosphate group (phosphorylation) to another molecule, which then becomes primed and energized for specific reactions. ADP can be recycled to ATP very rapidly. 4. Define and describe four key features of enzymes. Enzyme Structure and Function A. Four Features of Enzymes 1. Enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts; they speed up reactions. 2. Enzymes can be reused. 3. Enzyme actions are reversible. 4. Enzymes are selective and act upon specific substrates. 5. If all transport proteins work by changing shape then how do passive transporters differ from active transporters? Protein-Mediated Transport Passive Transport 1. In passive transport, solutes pass through the cell membrane with assistance from transport proteins in accordance with the concentration gradient. 2. Transport proteins change shape to move substances into and out of the cell. Active Transport 1. In active transport, solutes can move against concentration gradients with assistance from transport proteins that can change their shape with energy supplied by ATP. 2. The sodium-potassium pump is a major cotransport system in that it can set up concentration gradients that can in turn drive other transport activities. 6. Define diffusion in terms of concentration gradients, electric gradients, pressure gradients. What is osmosis? Movement of Water Across Membranes Osmosis Bulk flow is the mass movement of one or more substances in response to pressure, gravity, of some other external force, like the flow of blood in the circulatory system. Osmosis is the passive movement of water across a differentially permeable membrane in response to solute concentration gradients, pressure gradients, or both. Effects of Tonicity Osmotic movements are affected by the relative concentrations of solutes (called tonicity) in the fluids in�side and outside the cell. Three conditions can occur: A hypotonic fluid has a lower concentration of solutes than does the fluid in the cell; cells immersed in it may swell. A hypertonic fluid has a greater concentration of solutes than does the fluid in the cell; cells in it may shrivel. An isotonic fluid has the same concentration of solutes as the fluid in the cell; immer�sion in it causes no net movement of water. Effects of Fluid Pressure Any volume of fluid exerts hydrostatic pressure against a cell membrane. Osmotic pressure is the amount of force that prevents any further increase in the volume of solution inside a cell. 7. Distinguish between exocytosis and endocytosis? Exocytosis Vesicles, small sacs made of membranes, can transport and store substances within the cytoplasm. Exocytosis moves substances from cytoplasm to plasma membrane during secretion. Endocytosis Endocytosis encloses particles in small portions of plasma membrane to form vesicles that then move into the cytoplasm. Phagocytic cells (amoebas and white blood cells) digest the contents of the endocytic vesicles by means of enzymes within lysosomes which fuse with the vesicles.

Biology Review Questions Chapter 6 1. A cat eats a bird, which earlier ate a caterpillar that chewed on a weed. Which organisms are autotrophs? Which are the heterotrophs? 2. Summarize the photosynthesis reactions as an equation. Name where each stage takes place inside a chloroplast. Photosynthesis�An Overview Where the Reactions Take Place Both stages of photosynthesis occur in the chloroplast. The semifluid interior (stroma) is the site for the second series of photosynthesis reactions. Flattened sacs, thylakoids, interconnected by channels weave through the stroma; the first reactions occur here. There are two series of reactions: The light-dependent reactions convert light energy to chemical energy, which is stored in ATP and NADPH; water is split. The light-independent reactions assemble sugars and other organic molecules using ATP and NADPH as energy sources. Overall, for glucose formation: sunlight 12H2O + 6CO2 �����> 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O 3. What is the function of ATP in photosynthesis? What is the function of NADPH? The Light-Dependent Reactions Three events are involved: 1. Pigments absorb light energy and give up electrons. 2. Water molecules are split; ATP and NADPH form; oxygen is released. 3. Electrons are replaced in the pigment molecules that first gave them up. The Light-Independent Reactions These reactions constitute a pathway known as the Calvin-Benson cycle. 1. The participants and their roles in the synthesis of carbohydrates are: a. ATP, which provides energy. b. NADPH, which provides hydrogen atoms and electrons. c. Atmospheric air, which provides the carbon and oxygen from carbon dioxide. 2. The reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplasts and are not dependent on sunlight. 4. Which of the following pigments are most visible in a maple leaf in summer? Which become the most visible in autumn? a. chlorophylls c. anthocyanins b. phycobillins d. carotenoids 5. How does chlorophyll a differ in function from accessory pigments during the light dependent reactions? Pigment molecules on the thylakoid membranes absorb photons. Chlorophyll pigments absorb blue and red but transmit green (leaves). Carotenoid pigments absorb violet and blue but transmit yellow, orange, and red. 6. Fill in figure 6.18 for the light dependent reactions. 7. With respect to the light dependent reactions how do the cyclic and non cyclic pathways of electron flow differ? Cyclic and Noncyclic Electron Flow In the cyclic pathway of ATP formation, electrons are first excited, pass through an electron transport system, and then return to the orig�inal photosystem. This photosystem is characterized by the presence of chlorophyll P700. The cyclic pathway is an ancient way to make ATP from ADP; it was used by early bacteria. The noncyclic pathway of ATP formation transfers electrons through two photosystems and two electron transport systems (ETS) simultaneously. One pathway begins when chlorophyll P680 in photosystem II absorbs energy. Boosted electron moves through a transport system, which releases energy for ADP + Pi ��> ATP. Electron from photolysis of water fills �electron hole� left in P680 and produces oxygen by-product. 8. What substance does not take part in the Calvin Benson cycle ATP, NADPH, RuBP, carentoids, o2, CO2, or enzymes? The Light-Independent Reactions These reactions constitute a pathway known as the Calvin-Benson cycle. The participants and their roles in the synthesis of carbohydrates are: ATP, which provides energy. NADPH, which provides hydrogen atoms and electrons. Atmospheric air, which provides the carbon and oxygen from carbon dioxide. The reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplasts and are not dependent on sunlight. Do Plants Capture Carbon Carbon dioxide diffuses into a leaf, across the plasma membrane of a photosynthetic cell, and into the stroma of a chloroplast. Rubisco joins carbon dioxide to RuBP to produce an unstable intermediate that splits to form two molecules of PGA. How Do Plants Build Glucose? Each PGA then receives a Pi from ATP plus H+ and electrons from NADPH to form PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde). Most of the PGAL molecules continue in the cycle to fix more carbon dioxide, but two PGAL join to form a sugar-phosphate, which will be modified to sucrose, starch, and cellulose. 9. Fill in the blanks for figure 6.19. Which substances are the original sources of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms used in the synthesis of glucose in the Calvin Benson cycle? 10. On hot dry days oxygen from photosynthesis accumulates in leaves. Explain why and explain what happens in C3 plants versus C4 plants A. C4 Plants Plants in hot, dry environments close their stomata to conserve water, but in so doing retard carbon dioxide entry and permit oxygen buildup inside the leaves. oxygen�not carbon dioxide� becomes attached to RuBP to yield one PGA (instead of two) and one phosphoglycolate (not useful); this unproductive process is called photorespiration. To overcome this fate, crabgrass, sugarcane, corn, and other plants fix carbon twice to produce oxaloacetate, a four-carbon, compound which can then donate the carbon dioxide to the Calvin-Benson cycle. These plants are called C4 plants. CAM Plants In desert plants opening the stomata in the daytime would allow too much water to escape. Instead, they open the stomata at night and fix CO2 in the form of crassulacean acid for use the next day in carbohydrate synthesis. These plants are known as CAM plants. 11. Are photoautotrophs the only self feeders? If not give examples and where you might find them?

Biology Chapter 7 Review Questions 1. Is this true or false. Aerobic respiration occurs in animals but not plants, which make ATP only by photosynthesis. 2. Using the diagram below of the aerobic pathway fill in the blanks with the number of molecules of pyruvate, coenzymes, and end products. Write in the net ATP formed in each stage then the net ATP formed from start glycolysis to finish. 3. Is glycolysis energy requiring or energy releasing? Or do both kinds of reactions occur during glycolysis? 4. In what respect does electron transport phosphorylation differ from substrate level phosphorylation? 5. Sketch the double membrane system of the mitchochondrion and show where electron transport systems and ATP synthases are located. 6. Name the compound that is the entry point for the Krebs cycle and state whether it directly accepts the pyruvate from glycolysis. For each glucose molecule how many carbon atoms enter the Kreb's cycle? How many depart from it, and in what form? 7. Is this statement true or false? Muscle cells cannot contract at all when deprived of oxygen. If true explain why? If false name the alternatives available to them?

Biology Chapter 8 Review Questions 1. Define mitosis and meiosis two mechanisms that operate in eukaryotic cells. Does either one divide the cytoplasm? 2. Define somatic cell and germ cell? All somatic cells of a particular species have the same number of chromosomes; example: humans have forty-six. Chromosomes come in pairs�one member from each parent. Chromosome pairs carry genes for the same traits. Chromosome number (n) tells how many of each type of chromosome is present in a cell; 2n is diploid. 3. What are chromosomal proteins? Give an example and briefly state how it interacts with a DNA molecule? 4. What is a chromosome called when it is in the unduplicated state? In the duplicated state with two sister chromatids? 5. Describe the microtubular spindle and its functions. What role do motor proteins play in its operation? 6. Using the diagram above as a guide name and describe the key features of the stages of mitosis? Mitosis Proceeds Through Four Stages Major changes in mitosis proceed through four stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Chromosomes are moved by a spindle apparatus composed of two sets of microtubules that extend from each pole (centriole) of the cell and overlap at the equator. Mitosis Prophase: Mitosis Begins 1. Chromosomes (already duplicated during interphase) become visible as rodlike units, each consisting of two sister chromatids joined at the centromere. 2. Nuclear membrane breaks up; spindle forms. 3. Microtubules move one pair of centrioles to opposite pole of the cell. B. Transition to Metaphase 1. Sister chromatids become oriented toward opposite poles. 2. When all the chromosomes are aligned at the cell�s equator halfway between the poles, the cell is said to be in metaphase. C. From Anaphase Through Telophase 1. Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles. 2. Now each chromatid is an independent (daughter chromosome) chromosome. 3. Telophase begins when chromosomes arrive at the poles. 4. The nuclear envelope forms from the fusion of small vesicles; mitosis is complete. D. At the conclusion of mitosis, each new cell has the same chromosome number as the parent nucleus. 7. Briefly explain how cytoplasmic division differs between a typical plant cell and typical animal cell? Division of the Cytoplasm Cell Plate Formation in Plants Plant cells form a cell plate (cellulose) that separates the two new cells. Vesicles containing building materials fuse with one another to form the disklike cell plate between the two new cells. Cytoplasmic Division of Animal Cells In animal cells, cleavage furrow on the outer surface indicates that two new cells are forming. Contractile microfilaments pull the plasma membrane inward.

Biology Chapter 9 Review Questions 1. The diploid chromosome numbers for the somatic cells of a few organisms are listed below. How many chromosomes will end up in the gametes of each organism? Fruit fly Garden pea Corn Frog 2. A diploid germ cell has four pairs of homologous chromosomes designated AA, BB, CC, DD. How would the chromosomes of the gametes be designated? Meiosis begins with diploid (2n = 46) germ cells and produces haploid gametes (n = 23). In 2n cells there are two chromosomes of each type, called homologous chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes line up (even unequally matched sex chromosomes!) during meiosis. Meiosis produces gametes that have one of each pair of homologous chromosomes, i.e., they are haploid. Two Divisions, Not One In some ways meiosis resembles mitosis: The chromosomes are duplicated during interphase to form sister chromosomes held together at the centromere. Chromosomes are moved by the microtubules of the spindle apparatus. Unlike mitosis, meiosis has two series of divisions�meiosis I and II. During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair and the cytoplasm divides later. Each of the two daughter cells receives a haploid number of chromosomes. Each chromosome is still duplicated. In meiosis II, the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate; the cytoplasm divides again, resulting in four haploid cells. 3. Look at the chromosomes in the germ cell in the diagram. Is this cell at anaphase 1 or anaphase II? Homologous chromosomes pair up. Nonsister chromatids exchange segments in a process called crossing over. Because alleles for the same trait can vary, new combinations of genes in each chro�mosome can result; this is one source of genetic variation. Crossing over leads to genetic recombination. Metaphase I Alignments During metaphase I, homologous chromosomes randomly line up at the spindle equator. During anaphase I, homologous chromosomes (still duplicated) separate into two hap�loid cells, each of which has a random mix of maternal and paternal chromosomes. 4. Define meiosis and describe its stages? In what respects is meiosis not like mitosis? Meiosis and Mitosis Compared Mitotic cell division produces clones; this type of division is common in single-celled, asexually reproduc�ing organisms and in the growth process of multicelled forms. Meiosis occurs only in the germ cells used in sexual reproduction; it gives rise to novel combinations of alleles in offspring. 5. What is the name for the alternative forms of the same gene? 6. Outline the main steps in which gametes form in plants? Do the same for gamete formation in animals? A. Gamete Formation in Plants Events such as spore formation may occur between meiosis and gamete formation. Haploid spores germinate into haploid gamete-producing bodies. Gamete-producing bodies and spore-producing bodies develop during the life cycle of plants. Gamete Formation in Animals In males, meiosis and gamete formation are called spermatogenesis. Germ cell (2n) ��> primary spermatocyte (2n) ��> MEIOSIS I ��> two secondary sperma�tocytes (n) ��> MEIOSIS II ��> four spermatids (n). Spermatids change in form; each develops a tail to become a mature sperm. In females, meiosis and gamete formation are called oogenesis. Germ cell (2n) ��> primary oocyte (2n) ��> MEIOSIS I ��> secondary oocyte (n, and large in size) plus polar body (n, and small in size) ��> MEIOSIS II ��> one large ovum (n) plus three polar bodies (n, small). The single ovum is the only cell capable of being fertilized by a sperm; the polar bodies wither and die. 7. Genetically what is the key difference between the outcomes of sexual and asexual reproduction? In asexual reproduction, one parent passes a duplicate of its genes (DNA molecules) to its off�spring, which can only be genetically identical clones of the parent. In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes one gene for each trait. Genes for each trait come in slightly different forms called alleles, originally produced by mutations. Meiosis shuffles the alleles during gamete formation, and fertilization produces offspring with unique combinations of alleles. The variation generated by sexual reproduction is the testing ground for natural selection and is the basis for evolutionary change.

Biology Chapter 10 Review Questions 1. Distinguish between these terms. a. gene and allele b. dominant allele and recessive allele c. homozygote and heterozygote d. genotype and phenotype Genes carry encoded information about specific traits. Each gene has a locus on a chromosome. Diploid cells have two genes (a gene pair) for each trait�each on a homologous chromosome. Alleles are various molecular forms of a gene for the same trait. If homozygous, both alleles are the same. If heterozygous, the alleles differ. When heterozygous, one allele is dominant (A), and the other is recessive (a). Homozygous dominant = AA, homozygous recessive = aa, and heterozygous = Aa. Genotype is the sum of the genes, and phenotype is how the genes are expressed. 2. Define a true breeding lineage. What is a hybrid? This plant can fertilize itself; true-breeding varieties were available to Mendel. Peas can also be cross-fertilized by human manipulation of the pollen. Mendel cross-fertilized true-breeding garden pea plants having clearly contrasting traits (example: white versus purple flowers). 3. Distinquish between monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, testcross. Monohybrid crosses have two parents that are true-breeding for contrasting forms of a trait. One form of the trait disappears in the first generation (F1), only to show up in the second generation. We now know that all members of the first generation are heterozygous because one par�ent could produce only an A gamete and the other could produce only an a gamete. Results of the F2 generation required mathematical analysis. he numerical ratios of crosses suggested that genes do not blend. For example, the F2 offspring showed a 3:1 phenotypic ratio. each sperm has an equal probability of fertilizing an egg. This can be seen most easily by using the Punnett square. each new plant has three chances in four of having at least one dominant allele. The Mendelian theory of segregation states that diploid organisms inherit two genes per trait, and each gene segregates from the other during meiosis such that each gamete will receive only one gene per trait. Testcrosses To support his concept of segregation, Mendel crossed F1 plants with homozygous reces�sive individuals. A 1:1 ratio of recessive and dominant phenotypes supports his hypothesis. Predicting Outcomes of Dihybrid Crosses Mendel also performed experiments involving two traits�a dihybrid cross. Mendel correctly predicted that all F1 plants would show both of the dominant alleles (example: all purple flowers and all tall plants). Mendel wondered if the genes for flower color and plant height would travel together when two F1 plants were crossed. The F2 results showed 9/16 were tall and purple-flowered and 1/16 were dwarf and white-flowered�as were the original parents; however, there were 3/16 each of two new combinations: dwarf purple-flowered and tall white-flowered. The Theory in Modern Form We now know that genes located on nonhomologous chromosomes segregate independently of each other and give the same phenotypic ratio as Mendel observed: 9:3:3:1. The Mendelian theory of independent assortment states that each gene of a pair tends to assort into gametes independently of other gene pairs located on nonhomologous chromosomes. Incomplete Dominance, This is condition in which the dominant allele cannot completely mask the expression of another For example: red-flowered snapdragons crossed with white ones yield pink. ABO Blood Types: A Case of Codominance In codominance, both alleles are expressed in heterozygotes . Blood type is determined by markers produced by three genes�a multiple allele system. IA and IB are each dominant to i, but are codominant to each other. Therefore, some persons can express both genes and have AB blood. 4. Do segregation and independent assortment occur in mitosis, meiosis or both? both. 5. What do the vertical and horizontal arrows of the diagram represent? What do the bars and curved line represent?

Biology Chapter 11 Review Questions 1. What is a gene? What are alleles? 2. Distinguish between a. homologous and nonhomologous chromosomes. b. sex chromosomes and autosomes. c. karyotype and karyotype diagram. 3. Define genetic recombination and describe how crossing over can bring it about? 4. Define pedigree. Explain the difference between genetic abnormality and genetic disorder using examples. 5. Contrast a typical pattern of autosomal recessive inheritance with that of autosomal dominant inheritance. 6. Describe two clues that often show up when a recessive allele on a X chromosome causes a genetic disorder. 7. Distinguish among a chromosomal deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation. 8. Define aneuploidy and polyploidy. Make a simple sketch of an example of nondisjunction.

Biology Chapter 12 Review Questions 1. Name the three molecular parts of a nucleotide in a DNA. Also name the four different bases in these nucleotides. 2. What kind of bond joins two DNA strands in a double helix? 3. Which nucleotide base pairs with adenine? With guanine? 4. Explain how DNA molecules can show both constancy and variation from one species to the next.

Biology Chapter 13 Review Questions 1. Are the polypeptide chains of proteins assembled on DNA? If so state how, if not state how they are assembled and on which molecules? 2. Name the three classes of RNA and state the function of each class in protein synthesis. 3. The pre m RNA transcipts of eukaryotic cells contain both introns and exrons. Are the introns or exons snipped out before the transcripts leave the nucleus? 4. Distinguish between codon and anticodon. 5. Name the three stages of translation. Briefly describe the key events of each stage. 6. Define gene mutation. Give examples of three agents that cause mutations. 7. Do all mutations arise spontaneously? Are environmental agents always the trigger for mutations? 8. Define and then state the possible outcomes of the following types of mutation base pair substitution, base insertion and insertion of a transposon in a new location of a DNA.

Biology Chapter 14 Review Questions 1. A plant, animal, and fungus consist of diverse cell types. How might the diversity arise given that body cells in each of these organisms inherit the same set of gentic instructions? As part of your answer define cell differentiation and the general way that selective gene expression brings it about? 2. In what fundamental way do negative and positive controls of transcription differ? Is the effect of one or the other form of control or both reversible? 3. Distinguish between a. repressor protein and activator protein. b. promoter and operator c. repressor and enhancer 4. Describe one type of control of transcription for the lactose operon in E.Coli and prokaryotic cell? 5. Using the sketch on the facing page define three types of gene controls and note the levels at which they take effect. Does the sketch work for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Why or why not? 6. What is a barr body? Does it appear in the cells of human males, human females or both? Explain your answer. 7. Briefly describe the general characteristics of normal cells. Then explain the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor.

Biology Chapter 15 Review Questions 1. Distinguish between recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. 2. Distinguish these terms from one another. a. chromosomal genomic DNA and cDNA. b. cloning vector and DNA clone. 3. Define PCR. Can fragments of chromosomal DNA, cDNA or both be amplified by PCR? 4. Define DNA fingerprinting. Briefly describe which portions of the DNA are used in the DNA fingerprinting. 5. Outline the steps of automated DNA sequencing. 6. Define cDNA library then briefly describe how a gene can be isolated from it. Define probe and nucleic acid hybridization as part of your answer. 7. Give three examples of applications that can be derived from knowledge of an organism's genome. 8. Name one of the ways in which modified genes have been inserted into mammalian cells. 9. Define gene therapy. Once the human genome has been fully sequenced, why will it be difficult to manipulate it's genes to advantange?

Biology Chapter 16 Review Questions 1. Define biogeography and comparative anatomy. How did studies in both disciplines contradict the idea that species have remained unchanged since the time of their creation? 2. Define evolution. Define evolution by natural selection. Can an individual evolve? 3. Name three broad categories of heritable traits that help characterize a population? 4. Explain the difference between continous variation and polymorphism. 5. How do lethal mutations and neutral mutations differ? 6. Define genetic equilibrium. Which occurrences can drive allele frequencies away from genetic equilibrium? 7. Define fitness with respect to phenotype. 8. Identify the mode of selection stabilizing, directional or disruptive for the diagrams. 9. Define bottleneck and the founder effect. Are these cases of genetic drift or do they merely set the stage for it?

Biology Chapter 17 Review Questions 1. How does the biological species concept differ from a definition of species based on morphological traits alone? 2. Define speciation and describe a speciation model. 3. Give examples of reproductive isolating mechanisms. 4. With respect to evolutionary tree diagrams describe what each of the following features represents. a. a single line. b. soft angled branching of line. c. horizontal branching. d. vertical continuation of branch. e. many branchings of a line. f. dashed line. g. branch ending before present. 5. Define and give an example of adaptive radiation. 6. Define extinction. What kinds of events might bring about extinctions?

Biology Chapter 18 Review Questions 1. Distinguish macroevolution from microevolution. Compare C1 with selection. 2. Name some of the reasons why biologists expect to find gaps in the fossil record of what apparently is the continuous evolution of life from the time of its origin. 3. Name three eras of the geologic time scale. 4. Did life originate in the Archean or Proterozoic eon? 5. Define radiometric dating. What does half life mean? 6. Give an example of how immense crustal movements have influenced the evolution of life., 7. Define and give examples of the difference between a. homologous and analogous structures. b. morphological divergence and convergence. 8. Comparitive morphology refers to comparisons of body form and structures, embryonic and adult for major lineages. Describe an example of such a comparison. 9. Name a protein specified by a gene that has been highly conserved in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. 10. Why do evolutionary biologists apply heat energy to hybrid molecules that contain DNA from two species? 11. What type of mutation is the basis of molecular clock? What does the last tick of a molecular clock signify? 12. Name all the kingdoms in the six kingdom classification scheme and give examples of representative organisms.

Biology Chapter 19 Review Questions 1. Compare chemical and physical conditions that are thought to have prevailed on the Earth 4 billion years with current conditions. 2. Describe some experimental evidence for the spontaneous origin of large organic molecules, self assembly of proteins, and formation of organic membranes, and spheres. 3. Summarize the key points of the theory of endosymbiotic origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cite evidence that favors this theory. 4. Describe the prevailing conditions that probably favored the Cambrian explosion of diversity among marine animals as evidenced by the fossil record. 5. When did plants, fungi, insects invade the land? What kind of vertebrates first invaded the land and when? 6. What were the global conditions like when the gymnosperms and dinosaurs originated? 7. Briefly explain how an asteroid impact and global broiling may have caused the mass extinction at the K-T boundary? 8. Would you expect the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, or Cenozoic to be called the age of mammals? As part of your answer explain the differences between global conditions in each era?





Make your own free website on Tripod.com