{\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1252\deff0\deflang1033{\fonttbl{\f0\fswiss\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f1\froman\fprq2\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}} {\colortbl ;\red0\green128\blue0;} {\*\generator Msftedit;}\viewkind4\uc1\pard\f0\fs20 challenge questions \par \par \par lesson 7 page 88\par challeng questions\par \par 1. If monohybrid crosses produce four possible genotypes and dihybrid\par crosses produce 16 possible genotypes how many genotypes would be\par produced by a trihybrid cross three sets of alleles?\par \par 2. If recessive genes are transmitted from one generation to the next how do\par you explain the disappearance of certain traits from entire populations?\par \par 3. What kinds of traits provide good examples of simple dominance? Which\par kinds of traits are not good examples?\par \par 4. What is the difference between codominance and incomplete dominance in\par terms of how the inherited trait is expressed in offspring?\par \par 5. How many alleles does it take to produce the four possible blood types\par found in human beings?\par \par 6. How can blood type be used to establish paternity?\par \par 7. How do researchers know whether a new strain of organism represents a\par new species or phenotypic variation of a existing species?\par \par \par \par lesson 8 page 100\par challenge questions\par 1. Why do you think DNA evolved as a double stranded molecule rather\par than a single stranded molecule?\par \par 2. What is semiconservative replication and what are its advantages?\par \par 3. How do you explain the fact that the DNA of all single celled and\par multicellular organisms uses uses the same nucleic acids?\par \par 4. What happens if DNA is damaged? How does the organism recognize and\par repair such damage?\par \par 5. Does genetic recombination naturally occur? If so where and when does\par it occur?\par \par 6. What kinds of organisms are ideally suited for genetic engineering research and why?\par \par DNA Structure and Function\par \par \par \par lesson 9 page 113 114\par Challenge Questions\par 1. Why does protein synthesis take place on ribosomes? In what way does\par their structure support this function?\par \par 2. What is the advantage of synthesizing proteins from RNA a modified\par copy of DNA rather than from DNA itself?\par \par 3. You already know that some alterations in the genetic code can be\par harmful even lethal. Can such alterations also be beneficial? Cite\par examples of alterations that might benefit a organism.\par \par 4. What is the role of mutation in altering the genetic code? Is this role\par significant in view of the other mechanisms for genetic alteration?\par \par 5. How does gene mutation differ from chromosomal variation?\par \par 6. How are scientists able to piece together the process of protein synthesis\par and the effects of genetic controls without direct observation?\par \par 7. Why is it easier to study gene control in prokaryotic cells than in\par eukaryotic cells?\par \par 8. Scientists have determined that eukaryotic cells use only a fraction of the\par DNA they contain. Why is this? Why is all this DNA passed down from\par one generation to the next?\par \par 9. Why do repeated applications of a single drug or pesticide cause resistance\par among some bacteria and insects?\par \par \par lesson 12 page 152.\par \par 1. Why are prokaryotes the most metabolically diverse organisms? What is\par the basis for grouping them in a single kingdom?\par \par 2. If viruses are considered nonliving why are they covered in a course in biology?\par \par 3. How are viroids different from viruses? What is a retrovirus?\par \par 4. How does the human body respond to a sudden viral invasion?\par \par 5. Why aren't we able to develop vaccinations to protect ourselves against\par certain diseases such as the common cold?\par \par 6. How do antibiotics work? How does an antibiotic such as penicillin kill bacteria?\par \par 7. Why do infectious bacteria and other microorganisms tend to thrive in tropical climates?\par \par lesson 13 page 166\par challenge questions\par \par 1. Why are protozoans no longer included in the kingdom Animalia?\par \par 2. Do mosses really only grow on the north side of trees? If so why is this?\par \par 3. How do fungi such as yeast support fermentation?\par \par 4. Why are some fungi not considered true fungi? What does this tell you \par about the biological classification system used today?\par \par 5. Why do you think that sponges and cnidarians used to be classified as plants?\par \par 6. What is the difference between vertebrates and chordates?\par \par 7. Why do populations often collapse when a new predator is introduced into\par their habitat?\par \par 8. How did the muscle cells of birds evolve to accommodate the increased\par oxygen and energy needs for flight?\par \par \par lesson 14 page 179\par challenge questions\par \par 1. Why do plants need nitrogen to survive? What kinds of molecules depend\par on nitrogen and what would happen if these molecules were unavailable?\par \par 2. Why is it important to include some of the surrounding soil when moving\par a plant from one place to another?\par \par 3. What would happen if stomata lost their ability to open and close? What\par would happen if they were permanently open? What would happen if they \par were permanently closed?\par \par Plant nutrition and transport\par Many aspects of the structure and function of plants\par are adaptive responses to low concentrations of water\par minerals, and other environmental resources.\par \par A plant's root system takes up water from soil and\par also mines the soil for nutrients. \par \par A plant's cuticle and its many stomata function in\par the conservation of water a scarce resource in most\par habitats on land. Stomata are passageways across the\par epidermis of leaves and to a lesser extent stems. When\par open stomata permit gas exchange. When closed they\par help control water loss.\par \par Stomata open during the day when photosnthesis\par proceeds. Carbon dioxide diffuses into leaves oxygen\par diffuses out and water loss is rapid. Most plant species\par conserve water by closing stomata at night.\par \par 4. Can plants be overwatered? Why is this bad for the plant?\par \par 5. Why is it important to avoid overplanting a area? What do you think\par happens when too many plants compete for nutrients in the same soil?\par \par 6. How do the tissues found in the xylem conduct water even though they\par are dead at maturity?\par \par 7. How does the growth of plants differ from that of animals?\par \par 8. What is tree sap? What is it made of and what is its purpose?\par \f1\fs22 8. What is tree sap? What is it made of and what is its purpose?\par \par Tree sap Sap is the thin, watery fluid inside plants that circulates food and water to the various parts of the plant.\par a white oak tree, that has sap. like sap from the oak tree is coming out of a wounded area of the trunk. \par \pard\keepn\sb100\sa100 Cherry tree sap oozing\par \pard\sb100\sa100 cherry tree has large amounts of sap running from all around the trunk and about 8 inches up every branch. \par I dug into a couple of the wounds and could not find any borers, but that is my suspicion. I had a cherry and a peach do the same thing, and it was borers. Should I dig more? What is your opinion? \par The borer most likely to attack an otherwise healthy cherry tree is the peach tree borer which will be found in the bottom foot of the tree trunk. \par It will not be found boring into the branches. There are other borers that will be found in the branches but, if they are there, the tree will be nearly dead because these borers don't attack a healthy tree. \par In addition, you would have described the sap as coming out in little spirals from the holes left by the borers. From what you wrote, I suspect something other than this type of borers.\par It is possible that there are peach tree borers damaging the tree at its base and causing the other problems you described. \par check for gummy sap and sawdust at the base of the tree. If that is there, peach tree borers are probably present.\par the borers may be causing death of the bark higher on the trunk by interrupting the flow of nutrients and water. Sap will be found oozing at the top of the dying bark.\par Don't do a lot of digging into the bark looking for borers. This can do more damage than the borers. Some careful digging into the sap is okay. \par Cherry trees and related trees, such as plums, apricots, peaches, etc., will often develop "shields" of sap in response to injury. \par The injury can be due to freeze damage (in this case the sap shows up in the early summer), or it can be the result of physical wounding. \par Physical wounds can be due to wire tied around the trunk, mower damage, hail injury, or sun scald of the bark. Wounded areas are also subject to diseases, so that may also be a factor.\par At this time, I would consider the factors listed above to see which can be eliminated. \par Keep the tree well watered, watering once a month through the winter, then see how it looks in the spring. \par It may recover if there is physical damage which is not too extensive. If there are borers at the base of the tree causing dying of the bark above, it will be necessary to treat for the borers.\par \cf1 http://cahe.nmsu.edu/ces/yard/2001/101301.html\par \pard\cf0\f0\fs20\par 9. What is the source of cork the substance used to make bottle stoppers?\par Why is this substance uniquely suited for this purpose?\par \par \par lesson 15 page 191\par \par 1. What features had to evolve to enable plants to flourish on land?\par \par 2. What strategies for pollination are most efficient? What strategies for seed\par dispersal are most efficient?\par \par 3. What are the similarities between a pollen grain and a human sperm cell?\par What are the differences?\par \par 4. If edible fruits provide a adaptive advantage for seed dispersal why are\par some fruits inedible or even poisonous?\par \par 5. Why do different kinds of plants grow at different elevations? What\par factors related to altitude affect plant growth and development?\par \par 6. How do herbicides work? Why do they kill some plants and not others?\par \par 7. How are plant hormones used by commercial growers to manipulate plant growth?\par \par 8. What is the difference between a fruit and a vegetable?\par \par 9. How do plants with seedless fruits grapes, watermelons propagate?\par \par \par Lesson 16 page 206\par \par challenge questions\par \par 1. What kinds of metabolic problems would you expect if homeostatic\par mechanisms suddenly became inoperative?\par \par 2. How does the body's regulation of glucose provide a example of a\par homeostatic mechanism?\par \par 3. How does the structure of epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nerve tissue,\par or muscle tissue provide insight into its function in the body?\par \par 4. Why is blood considered a connective tissue? Why is a bone considered\par a organ?\par \par 5. What is the role of ATP in muscle contraction?\par \par 6. How is muscular contraction coordinated to produce smooth movement?\par \par 7. Why do we have different kinds of joints? How does construction of a\par given joint reflect its function?\par \par \par Lesson 17 page 219\par challenge questions\par \par 1. Why is it that people who die from heart attacks have adequate amounts of\par oxygenated blood in their heart chambers?\par \par 2. What does it mean when the heart is referred to as a double pump?\par \par 3. Although the lymphatic system is supposed to cleanse the blood of\par harmful substances it often plays a major role in the spread of cancer.\par Why is this?\par \par 4. Why is it that differentiates the blood of a hemophiliac from that of a non hemophiliac?\par \par 5. Why is it that animals with open circulatory systems can function\par normally when blood flows freely into the interstitial spaces animals\par with closed circulatory systems would consider this kind of internal\par bleeding a life threatening condition?\par \par 6. How does clotting occur? What happens when clots break off and enter\par the bloodstream?\par \par 7. Before giving a injection the doctor or nurse always makes sure that\par there are no oxygen bubbles in the hypodermic. What would happen if\par oxygen bubbles were injected into the bloodstream?\par \par Lesson 18 page 233\par challenge questions\par \par 1. If a previously unknown pathogen has caused several recent deaths in a\par small mountain town what measures would you take to contain the\par outbreak and determine its source?\par \par 2. If the above outbreak was found to be caused by a tick borne bacteria\par what additional precautions would you take?\par \par 3. Using your knowledge of the immune response what is the main reason\par why organ transplants fail?\par \par 4. Under what conditions are monocytes converted to macrophages?\par \par 5. How do memory cells react to pathogens they are designed to detect?\par \par 6. What kind of immune responses would you expect from a blood transfusion?\par \par Lesson 19 page 246\par challenge questions\par \par 1. How are the effects of the bends from deep sea diving reversed or\par partially alleviated in a decompression chamber?\par \par 2. What does the term SCUBA stand for? What progress have we made\par since Jacques Cousteau invented this mechanical adaptation?\par \par 3. If you were dependent upon a respirator or iron lung to live would you\par accept this restriction? If the answer is yes under what circumstances and\par for how long would you continue using this form of respiration?\par \par 4. What are the normal reference ranges for arterial blood gases for humans?\par If a person were in keto acidosis how would those values change?\par \par 5. It has been noted that brain cells begin to die after being deprived of\par oxygen after only five minutes. How can you explain those cases where\par a individual has fallen to the bottom of a icy river or gone into\par respiratory when covered by snow for 20 minutes or more and had\par no known permanent effects?\par \par Lesson 20 page 260\par challenge questions\par \par 1. How do over the counter antacids and other medicines reduce the\par discomfort of heartburn and other digestive ailments?\par \par 2. Why does drinking coffee or tea often increase the sensation of hunger?\par \par 3. Why are dietary fibers such as bran important in the human diet?\par \par 4. What kinds of roles do vitamins and minerals play in human digestion?\par Which ones are essential to health?\par \par 5. While considered bizarre by Western cultures the practice of consuming\par one's own urine is practiced in Eastern cultures such as India. What are\par some possible benefits and risks of this practice?\par \par 6. Medical science has shown that humans can survive with one kidney.\par Why do we have two?\par \par 7. What are kidney stones and why do they form?\par \par 8. Why is it considered unhealthy to drink seawater?\par \par 9. Eating salty foods usually results in temporary weight gains. Why?\par \par Lesson 21 page 274\par challenge questions\par \par 1. How is that some people are tone deaf while others have a ear for\par music? What is it about their nervous system that makes virtuosos so\par good at what they do?\par \par 2. Why does drinking large amounts of coffee and other caffeinated drinks\par make a person jittery? What is going on with the person's nervous\par system under these conditions?\par \par 3. Why is it that older people can remenber the details of a distant event\par are unable to recall what they had for dinner the night before?\par \par 4. What purpose do dreams serve? Do they reveal clues to the inner\par thoughts, concerns, or aspirations of the dreamer?\par \par 5. In humans the cell bodies of neurons are not regenerated after injury or\par death. What adaptive advantages or disadvantages might this pose?\par \par Lesson 22 page 288\par challenge questions\par \par 1. Explain the role of oxytocin in the birth process. What triggers the\par hormone release at that time?\par \par 2. Was the development of the endocrine system in response to a lack of\par hormone like substances in the diet or environment?\par \par 3. Since a very small amount of hormone or hormone like substance is\par necessary to cause a physiological response describe a possible\par hormone warfare plan to regulate or control the population.\par \par 4. As we begin to see females giving birth after age 50 what implications\par does this have for the family members and society as a whole?\par \par 5. Would hormones be more efficient if they could all be converted to a lipid soluble state?\par \par 6. Why is the hormone ecdysone important for insects?\par \par 7. What effects do plant hormones have on the human body?\par \par \par Lesson 23 page 300\par challenge questions\par \par 1. If sexual reproduction is advantageous to most plants and animals why\par does sexual reproduction still persist? What possible advantages would\par asexual reproduction have over sexual reproduction?\par \par 2. How do fraternal twins develop? What produces identical twins? Why do\line nonidentical twins show more genetic variability than identical twins?\par \par 3. Why is it that only one sperm can fertilize a egg? What stops other sperm\par from fertilizing the same egg?\par \par 4. Why is it that the risk of birth defects increases with mothers over 40?\par Does the age of the male make any difference in terms of successful\par fertilization?\par \par 5. What organs does the placenta supplement or replace?\par \par 6. At what point in embryonic development do cells begin to differentiate?\par What are the first kinds of differentiated cells formed?\par \par 7. What causes cells to migrate during embryonic development to form the\par blastula various axes and linings and eventually the vital organs and\par tissues of the fetus?\par \par 8. What kinds of factors affect fertility? What measures are available to\par improve fertility?\par \par \par Lesson 24 page 312\par challenge questions\par \par 1. Why are many brightly colored organisms likely to be poisonous bad\par tasting or dangerous to other species?\par \par 2. Why are parasite host relationships not considered to be predator prey relationships?\par \par 3. If you are attempting to introduce a new species to your community what\par factors would you consider before bringing it there?\par \par 4. What is your estimate of the ultimate carrying capacity of the human\par population? \par \par 5. A new island has been built up above sea level is 1,000 miles from the\par nearest land. What sources are available to populate this island with both\par plant and animal species? What are some of the limiting factors relating to\par the biodiversity on the island after many years?\par \par \par }
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