{\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1252\deff0\deflang1033{\fonttbl{\f0\fswiss\fcharset0 Arial;}} {\*\generator Msftedit;}\viewkind4\uc1\pard\f0\fs20 Brittle Stars & Mudbugs book\par Northwest Shorelines & Wetlands\par \par Contents\par \par Harbor Seal page 1\par Description 5 to 6 feet long males slightly larger than females,\par mostly pale gray mattled with darker spots and rings.\par Habitat Harbors, beaches, mudflats, low rocks, and offshore waters.\par \par \par Pacific White Sided Dolphin page 4\par Description 7 to 8 feet long, \par Habitat Along continental shelf, Northern Pacific Ocean\par \par Waves page 6\par Waves come onto beaches shore\par Ocean winds generate these regimented waves and the waves are\par unceasing because the winds are unceasing. \par \par Gray Whale page 8\par Description to 46 feet long, \par Habitat Grays travel south along the pacific coast.\par \par Orca page 11\par \par Octopus page 14\par \par Spiny Dogfish page 17\par \par Tufted Puffin page 20\par \par Marbled Murrelet page 22\par \par Moon jellyfish page 25\par \par Dungeness Crab page 28\par \par Scallops page 31\par \par Salmon page 34\par \par Common Murre page 37\par \par Sea Pen page 40\par \par By the Wind Sailor page 42\par \par Nudibranchs Sea Slugs page 44\par \par Sea Cucumber page 47\par Description to 16 inches long, 3 inches in diameter, tubular animal.\par Habitat Low rocky tide pools, sandy offshore.\par \par Harlequin Duck page 51\par Description 12 inches male blue gray Female brown.\par Habitat Rough waters, heavy surf along rocky coasts.\par \par Scoters page 53\par Descriptions 20 inches, males are black females are brown.\par Habitat Offshore in winter, feeding at mussel coated pilings.\par close to shore high tides.\par \par Pacific Halibut page 55\par Description over 8 feet long, diamond shaped body, dark and light.\par Habitat Near or on bottom in deep water along the continental shelf.\par \par Dentalium page 57\par Description 1 to 3 inches long, slender, white shell with fine rings.\par Habitat Saltwater, in gravel or sandy mud offshore to 500 feet deep.\par \par Bull Kelp page 60\par Description grows to 60 to 70 feet long, single long slender stem ends in a bulb 4 to 6 inches in diameter.\par Habitat Off the coast in beds, 15 to 5 ffeet feep water depths.\par \par Tides page 63\par Description \par \par Sand Dollar page 65\par Description 3 inches across, circular, is gray, black, brown, or purple covered with tiney spines.\par Habitat Coastal beaches, in sandy beds running parallel to shoreline.\par \par Lewis's Moon Snail page 67\par Description large, rotund shellto 5 inches high.\par Habitat Protected beaches, bays, mud flats, and salt marshes.\par \par Razor Clam page 70\par Description Narrow, elongated shell 6 1/2 inches long 2 1/2 inches wide,\par shiny olive green to brown.\par Habitat Coastal shorelines, in open sloping sandy beaches.\par \par Beach Hopper page 72\par Description 1/2 inch long, brown white gray white or ivory body.\par Habitat On sandy ocean beaches,high tide or kelp, seaweed. \par \par Geoduck page 75\par Description Gray white shell grows to 8 inches long, irregular concentric rings.\par Habitat From several hundred feet offshore up to the low tide line. in bays and estuaries.\par \par Sandpipers are birds page 77\par Description 4 3/4 inches to 7 inches, slender bills, winter and summer plumages gray brown white.\par Dunlin bird, sanderling, least sandpiper.\par Habitat sand or gravel beaches, coastal mudflats, marshes, flooded fields.\par \par Western and Glaucous Winged Gulls page 80\par Description 26 inches, white head, neck, gray wings.\par Habitat Along coast, in estuaries and bays, sewage treatment plants.\par \par Mole Crab page 82\par Description 2 inches long, egg shaped body.\par Habitat Buried just beneath the surface of wave swept sandy ocean beaches.\par \par Limpets page 85\par Description 1 to 3 inches, soft bodied, two tentacled animal encased in hard cone shaped shell.\par Habitat surf pounded rocks, eelgrass or surfgrass, crevices.\par \par Common Sea Star page 88\par Description 8 to 10 inches in diameter, orange or purple or yellow or brown.\par Habitat Rocky tide pools, and below the low tide line.\par \par Sea Urchins page 90\par Description from 3 inches to 12 inches in diameter depending on species,\par spine covered, ball shaped or slightly flattened animals purple, red, or green\par depending on species.\par Habitat Coastal shorelines, exposed, wave pounded rocks to quiet shores.\par \par \par Blue and California Mussels page 93\par Description Blue mussels to 4 inches long, blue and black shells are\par rounded elongated triangular shape.\par Habitat tide pools, quieter waters inland and on coast.\par Mussels feed when the tide covers them.\par \par Anemones page 96 \par Description 1 inch to 12 inches in diameter, disk fringed with tentacles.\par Habitat Tide pools, surge channels, rock faces, underwater.\par \par Purple Shore Crab page 99\par Description Shell of back up to 2 inches wide, purple tinged, green purple red spots on claws.\par Habitat Under rocks or upper tidal area, rocky beaches, and some estuaries. \par \par Chitons page 101\par Description 1 1/2 inches to 14 inches long, oval or oblong, upper surface hard.\par Habitat Tide pools, shallow waters, below low tide line on rocky shores.\par \par Acorn Barnacles page 104\par Description Hard sometimes sharp shell like plates form a little hummock that houses\par the animal, large settlements often cover rocks in the tidal zone.\par Habitat Beach rocks, floats, driftwood.\par \par Shrimp page 107\par Description from less than 1/2 inch to 5 inches in length, slender bodies, jointed legs.\par Habitat wave-wash, sandy mud, estuaries, or tide pools.\par \par Habitat Coastal shorelines, \par Brittle Stars page 109\par Brittle Stars Description Central Disk 1/2 to 3 inches in diameter, distinct from arms, five arms\par relatively long and thin.\par Habitat Crevices and under rocks in rocky tide pools, offshore, on sea bottom,\par and on seaweed holdfasts.\par \par Hermit Crabs page 112\par Description Body to about 1 1/2 inches,\par much of body hidden inside a appropriated snail shell, front legs visible.\par Habitat Rocky shore tide pools, gravel beaches, offshore more than 50 feet deep. \par \par \par Rockweed page 115\par Description to 12 inches long, yellow green to olive green when wet.\par Plant branches are 1 to 2 inches.\par Habitat Upper areas of tide pools.\par \par Tube Worms page 117\par Description to 20 inches long, feathery, colorful tentacles, hard white tube or feathery.\par Habitat Coastal shorelines, on floats.on shells and seaweed.\par \par Black Oystercatcher page 119\par Description to 18 inches long, long orange red beak yellow eye surrounded by red ring.\par Habitat On rocky shores, and islands, sandy beaches.\par \par Tidepool Sculpin page 121\par Description To 3 1/2 inches long, large head and front fins, gray.\par Habitat Rocky tidepools, exposed or protected.\par \par Mink page 124\par Description to 28 inches long, half of the length being tail, cylindrical, brown fur covered short legs.\par Habitat Lives near rivers, marshes, lakes, estuaries, and along rocky beaches.\par \par Madrone page 127\par Description to 80 feet high, thick, leathery, oblong leaves 5 inches.\par Habitat sunny rocky slopes, and cliffs, good drain soil.\par \par Northern Harrier page 129\par Description Female larger than male. 21 inches brown and brown streaks. Male gray and black.\par Habitat open country including wet meadows, dry grasslands, coastal headlands.\par \par Sitka Spruce page 131\par Description to over 300 feet, bark purple gray, red brown.\par needles are stiff prickly.\par Habitat Moist or wet soils of the coast, areas of high rain and fog. \par \par Wetlands page 133\par Wetlands are areas where the soil is\par at least periodically inundated or saturated with water.\par Some types of wetlands support so many different plant and animal species.\par \par \par Cattails page 138\par Description 3 to 10 feet tall, stalk topped with spongy cylindrical spike emerges\par green turns brown leaves are green, long, and slender.\par Habitat Still or slow moving shallow fresh water, in sloughs, ponds, marshes, ditches, and lakes.\par \par Dragonflies and Damselflies page 140\par Description Long slender insects with four wings, colored.\par Habitat near water, ponds, streams, rivers and lakes, woodlands or fields.\par \par \par \par page 151 Bullfrog.\par A Bullfrog description to 8 inches long yellow green to dark\par brown, sometimes mattled, smooth skin, large, round\par ear membrane is same size as eye or slightly smaller in\par females, and much larger than eye in males.\par \par Habitat is a place to live in.\par Habitat: In or near permanent water, ponds,\par lakes, slow rivers, reservoirs, marshes and irrigation\par ditches with vegetation.\par \par The bullfrog has few predators in the Northwest because it\par is larger than the Northwest's native frogs. The bullfrogs eat\par smaller size frogs. Bullfrogs meaty legs.\par \par The bullfrog can eat anything that fits into its huge mouth includes\par eating worms, insects, fish, young snakes, and crayfish.\par The bullfrog and other frogs have no teeth so the frogs swallow food.\par \par Large tadpoles are most likely bullfrogs and takes 2 years to\par metamorphose into bullfrogs.\par \par \par \par Caddisfly page 157\par Description Larvae caterpillar like 1 1/2 inches long dull colored, four wings, and mothlike.\par Habitat Streams and rivers, lakes, ponds, marshes.\par \par \par page 154 Yellow Pond Lily\par Description Bright yellow flowers 1 1/2 to 3 inches in diameter bloom\par June to mid August, heart shaped flat leaves grow to 12 inches\par flowers and leaves float on the water or rise slightly above it.\par Habitat Shallow lakes, ponds, marshes, slow moving streams.\par \par Signal Crayfish page 160\par Description to 7 inches long,.\par Habitat Ponds, lakes, streams under rocks or crevices.\par \par Red Winged Blackbird page 163\par Description 8 inches male glossy black, bright red shoulder, female dark brown.\par Habitat Marshes, ponds, streamsides.\par \par River Otter page 165\par Description to 50 inches long, fur dark brown on back.\par Habitat areas with fresh water or salt water.\par \par \par Muskrat page 168 Description 15 to 24 inches long, includes vertically flattened tail, \par dark brown glossy fur on back, sides can be red brown, \par small eyes, ears.\par Habitat Ponds, marshes, and other wetlands, slow moving rivers and streams.\par \par ferns and other soft plants to eat.\par \par Beaver page 171 Description To 4 feet long, dark brown fur, orange front teeth.\par Habitat Streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and marshes.\par \par Great Blue Heron page 174 Description 3 or more feet, blue gray body, is a bird.\par Habitat Salt or fresh water, in tideflats, ponds, streams, or lakeside.\par \par feathers from herons reduced population since feathers used for fashion hats.\par \par Herons eat fish, frogs, insects.\par \par Belted Kingfisher page 177 description 12 inches long, blue gray head.\par Habitat Near water, fresh or salt water, streams, ponds, ocean, estuaries.\par \par Mallard page 179 description 25 inches long, green head and neck.\par Habitat Shallow ponds, streams, marshes, sheltered salt water.\par \par \par Frogs\par http://www.fishpondinfo.com/frog2.hm\par \par A small frog or tadpole will eat four to six food pellets each day.\par JurassiDiet\par Crickets and Frogs.\par \par petco.com\par Pet Food and pet supplies.\par \par Bullfrogs are shy and less shy.\par Bullfrogs like to hide.\par Catch a bullfrog at nighttime use a flashlight, and\par when you see a bullfrog slip a lingerie bag over the frog.\par Bullfrogs eat butterflies small frogs and small animals.\par \par The male has dark yellow throat.\par The male bullfrog is bigger than the female bullfrog.\par \par \par \par Scotch Broom page 161\par Description 9 feet, stiff, short leafed branches, yellow pea like flowers.\par Habitat Fields, grasslands, dunes, beaches.\par \par Ivy page 158\par Description Creeping and climbing vine, three to five lobed green leaves.\par Habitat Gardens, backyard borders, vertical structures, fences, walls, trees.\par \par Queen Anne's Lace page 155\par Description 5 feet high, flat disk shaped lacy white flower.\par Habitat fields, pastures, meadows.\par \par Lawn page 152\par Description leaf blades form at joints along upright stem, shades of green.\par Habitat grow best in full sun, \par \par Goldenrod page 150\par Description 5 feet tall, small bright yellow flowers.\par Habitat fields, meadows, woodland openings.\par \par Rhododendrons page 148\par Description fused petals form a bell shape, flower color and hue, leaves are thick, dark to light green.\par Habitat Acidic, well drained soils, not in full sun.\par \par blackberries page 145\par Description Slender, thorned shoots canes, leaves divided into leaflets, flowers white or pink.\par Habitat Evergreen and Himalayan inhabit open, uncultivated clearings, lowland mountains.\par \par Dandelion page 142\par Description Bright yellow flower, flexible hallow stalk.\par Habitat Fields, lawns, woods.\par \par Earwig page 139\par Description dark brown slender body.\par Habitat Dark, constricted recesses, plant leaves.\par \par Field cricket page 137\par Description 1 inch long, black or dark brown, two long antennae from head, two more antennae.\par habitat fields, or around houses.\par \par Crane Flies page 135\par Description Gray or brown body, 1 1/2 inches long.\par Habitat Moist, shady places, moss, mud, gardens, woodlands, near streams and lakes.\par \par Pillbugs and Sowbugs page 132\par Description 1/4 inch long, oval, segmented body, seven pairs of legs.\par Habitat Moist dark places, rotting logs, leaf debris.\par \par Woolly Bear Caterpillar page 105\par Description 2 inches long, dense hairs on body, red brown.\par Habitat meadows, fields.\par \par Earthworm page 107\par Description to 11 inches long, slender body, segmented and smooth encircling band.\par Habitat soil and green plants.\par \par Mourning Cloak Butterfly page 110\par Description 3 1/2 inches long, wings deep purple brown, bright blue spots outlined by pale yellow.\par Habitat Open woods, meadows, fields, parks.\par \par Longlegs page 113\par Description Oval body, eight long slender legs, brown or gray.\par Habitat Gardens, lawns, fields, woodpiles.\par \par Black and Yellow garden spider page 116\par Description to 1 1/4 inches, black and bright yellow or orange markings on body. dark legs.\par Habitat Gardens, backyards, meadows, fields.\par \par Meadow Spittlebug page 119\par Description 1/8 inch, wedge shaped, soft body, yellow to green.\par Habitat on meadow and field plants.\par \par Yellow jackets page 121\par Description 5/8 inch long, body marked with yellow and black colors.\par Habitat open areas, forests, meadows, fields, wetlands.\par \par Ground Beetles page 124\par Description 1 inch long quick moving, dark with long legs.\par Habitat on ground in gardens, yards, open woods, under logs.\par \par Mosquito page 126\par Description 1/4 inch, two wing, slender body.\par Habitat near water.\par \par Bumblebees page 129\par Description largest queens to 7/8 inch, covered with dense fur, black with yellow.\par Habitat gardens, meadows, fields, marshes, woodlands.\par \par \par \par Pacific Dogwood page 163\par Description can grow up to 80 feet bark thin brown, smooth 3 to 5 inch leaves.\par Habitat Moist soils, lower elevations.\par \par Foxglove page 166\par Description 6 feet, tubular flowers arranged along one side\par of stalk. 1 1/2 inch long flowers.\par Habitat Gardens, roadsides, fields, forest edges.\par \par A Ranger working in Mount Rainier National Park, WA can pull out a big patch of foxglove.\par tea fom foxglove and foxglove spends it's first year making leaves and storing energy in its root.\par \par Maples page 168\par Description Lobed leaves, dark green above and paler green below.\par Habitat Moist soils.\par \par Red Alder page 171\par Description 100 feet, bark mottled white or gray, oval\par saw toothed green leaves.\par Habitat Moist or wet open areas, streamsides, wetlands, mudflow deposits.\par \par \par \par \par \par Rainbows page 175\par \par A rainbow's colors are always arrayed red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.\par The top color in a rainbow's arc is red.\par When a second rainbow appears above the primary one making a double rainbow and it is reversed.\par A Rainbow forms a arc of colors in the sky.\par The rainbow streams from a prism.\par To see a rainbow the observer must be positioned between the sun and the water drops.\par Rainbows are seen in the west in the morning as the sun rises in the east.\par Rainbows are seen in the east in the afternoon as the sun sinks in the west.\par We can see the rainbows only if the water drops are shaped to reflect the light.\par \par \par The North Star, the Big Dipper, and Orion page 178\par \par To get oriented while looking at the night sky it helps to find\par Polaris the North Star. The Big Dipper is the grouping of stars,\par and seven stars are in the Big Dipper. \par \par \par }

The Sea Stars

Sea Stars Field Trip Measure your sea star from one ray to another a diameter of the wheel animal? The diameter is � inch. How many arms does your sea star have? 5 arms radiate from a centered disk. Can you see the eyes? Yes, except the eye spots are primitive light sensors are at the tip of the end of each arm.Each arm has a short sensory tentacle at its end that responds to chemicals and vibrations in the water, and a red photosensitive eyespot. A sea star often lifts the end of a arm to perceive light and movement. Describe what happened to sand particles. Describe the madreporite on your sea star color, texture. The sea star is brown, and spiny hard skin animal. On the aboral surface is a sieve-like plate termed the madreporite, which connects the internal canals of the water vascular system with the exterior. The madreporite leads to a vertical tube stone canal which joins a circular canal called the ring canal. Describe the tube feet on your sea star. The underside of the body of the sea star bears a mouth at the center and a groove running along each arm. The grooves contain rows of tiny, flexible appendages called tube feet. Sea stars move by means of the tube feet, which are operated by a hydraulic, or water vascular system. Sea Stars move very slowly along the seabed using tiny tube feet. Action of the tube feet in a sea star in motion. Is There a patter to the movement? Describe what you see? Sea stars do not tolerate that much dryness. longitudinal muscles of the tube foot contract, forcing water into the now relaxed ampulla. This shortens the tube foot.

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