The Planets The Planets Chapter 11 Mars Surface Features Flat plains, mountain ringed basins, canyons, valleys, volcanoes and impact craters. Martian channels origin of runoff channels. Dust storms on Mars. Lower levels of geological activity and colder temperatures.. Volcanic Features Volcanoes once erupted vast amounts of lava, water, and other gases. Some volcanoes are shield volcanoes formed by the eruption of relatively fluid basaltic lavas which build up massive domes with gentle slopes. Impact Craters thousands of craters on mars. A volcano named Olympus Mons, Mount Olympus is largest martian impact crater. Older southern highlands same raised and terraced rims like the other planets. On the Earth�s Moon a crater is surrounded by a rough hilly ejecta blanket close to the rim with radial streaks and chains of secondary craters farther out. Mars craters have smooth ejecta blankets with well defined edges. Water Most of it�s water frozen in subsurface permafrost. Canal�s on mars may had been filled w ith water in the past.. Martian channels origin of runoff channels maybe from water or wind erosion. Dust storms on Mars. Mars follows a 26 month cycle Distance from Earth to Mars 55 million km. Mariner 4 spacecraft discovery of atmosphere radio signals were Measured after passing through Mars atmosphere. Surface pressure was less than 0.01 bar. Viking lander and Pathfinder spacecraft. On Earth are summit craters on volcanoes. The continents on Venus and Earth are the product of compressional forces resulting in folded and uplifted mountains.

The Planets Chapter 12 1. Origin of life on Earth? Having a appropriate stable surface temperature permits the presence of liquid water. Life�s origin composition of the early atmosphere & presence of liquid water. Life begin with the chemistry that occurred in the early atmosphere got life started. 1. interplay life and the atmosphere oxygen in the atmosphere carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. 2 On Earth has been dominated by microbes before the first multi celled life appeared. Bacteria & eukaria & archaea. Plant life. Impact & Evolution. One catastrophe took place 65 million years ago when a comet or asteroid hit Earth in the Yucatan state of Mexico. Afterwards more new life begins. 3. Finding life on another planet 2 Viking landers each carried 3 experiments to test for the presence of martian microbes. A assortment of other instruments assess the habitability of the Mars environment. Clues in the atmosphere like presence of wet water. Viking experiment 1 was to analyze the soil called the agas chromatograph-mass spectrometer or GCMS. GCMS detection of organic matter. Three Viking life detection experiments. The GCMS found organic compounds.

Chapter 15 Pluto and Charon Pluto and Charon were first observed from Flagstaff, Arizona. Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory in 1930, and Charon was discovered by James Christy in 1978 at the U.S. Naval Observatory. In Roman mythology, Pluto is the god of the underworld, and Charon is the ferryman across the river Styx, the moat into Pluto's realm. Pluto rotates on its side, as does Charon in its orbit around Pluto. Charon is 19,636 kilometers (12,174 miles) away from Pluto, compared to the Earth-moon distance of 384,400 kilometers (238,328 miles). Despite their proximity, Pluto and Charon are covered with bright frosts of differing compositions: water ice covers Charon, while Pluto's surface is predominantly nitrogen frost with traces of methane and carbon monoxide ices. Both objects are about twice as dense as water, implying that, on average, they are made of two-thirds rock and one-third water ice. The Pluto/Charon system has a highly elliptical orbit around the sun. In 1989, Pluto was as close to the Sun as it gets during its long year � less than 30 astronomical units (AU), or 30 times the distance between Earth and the Sun. That distance nearly doubles just half a Pluto year later, to 50 AU in 2123. As Pluto recedes from the Sun, much of its thin nitrogen atmosphere will condense as frost on the surface. Pluto is a small, cold planet on the outskirts of the solar system. Pluto's diameter about 2,370 kilometers, or 1,470 miles Pluto has one moon of its own, Charon, diameter approximately 1,250 kilometers, or 775 miles.

The Moon Surface Properties of the Moon The surface of the Moon has two hemispheres with rather asymmetric properties; as a consequence the nature of the Lunar surface that we can see from the Earth is substantially different from the surface that is always hidden from the Earth. The Near Side The face of the Moon turned toward us is termed the near side (image at right). It is divided into light areas called the Lunar Highlands and darker areas called Maria (literally, "seas"; the singular is Mare). The Maria are lower in altitude than the Highlands, but there is no water on the Moon so they are not literally seas (Recent evidence from the Clementine spacecraft suggests that there may be some water on the Moon, contrary to previous assumptions). The dark material filling the Maria is actually dark, solidified lava from earlier periods of Lunar volcanism. Both the Maria and the Highlands exhibit large craters that are the result of meteor impacts. There are many more such impact craters in the Highlands. The Far Side The side of the Moon unseen from the Earth is called the far side. a number of meteor impact craters are visible. Cratering Density The amount of cratering is usually an indication of the age of a geological surface: the more craters, the older the surface, because if the surface is young there hasn't been time for many craters to form. Thus, the Earth has a relatively young surface because it has few craters. This is because the Earth is geologically active, with plate tectonics and erosion having obliterated most craters from an earlier epoch. In contrast the surface of the Moon is much older, with much more cratering. Further, different parts of the surface of the Moon exhibit different amounts of cratering and therefore are of different ages: the maria are younger than the highlands, because they have fewer craters. The Lunar Surface Material The bulk density of the Moon is 3.4 g/cc, which is comparable to that of (volcanic) basaltic lavas on the Earth (however, the bulk density of the Earth is 5.5 g/cc, because of the dense iron/nickel core). The Moon is coverered with a gently rolling layer of powdery soil with scattered rocks that is called the regolith; it is made from debris blasted out of the Lunar craters by the meteor impacts that created them. Each well-preserved Lunar crater is surrounded by a sheet of ejected material called the ejecta blanket. Geological Composition One striking difference between the Lunar surface material and that of Earth concerns the most common kinds of rocks. On the Earth, the most common rocks are sedimentary, because of atmospheric and water erosion of the surface. On the Moon there is no atmosphere to speak of and little or no water, and the most common kind of rock is igneous ("fire-formed rocks"). Geologically, the Lunar surface material has the following characteristics: 1. The Maria are mostly composed of dark basalts, which form from rapid cooling of molten rock from massive lava flows. 2. The Highlands rocks are largely Anorthosite, which is a kind of igneous rock that forms when lava cools more slowly than in the case of basalts. This implies that the rocks of the Maria and Highlands cooled at different rates from the molten state and so were formed under different conditions. 3. Breccias, which are fragments of different rocks compacted and welded together by meteor impacts, are found in the Maria and the Highlands, but are more common in the latter. 4. Lunar Soils contain glassy globules not commonly found on the Earth. These are probably formed from the heat and pressure generated by meteor impacts. Chemical Composition The Lunar rocks may also be examined according to the chemicals that they contain. Such analysis indicates: 1. They are rich in refractory elements, which are elements such as calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), and Titanium (Ti) that form compounds having high melting points. 2. They are poor in the light elements such as hydrogen (H). 3. There is high abundance of elements like Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O). The high concentration of rare metals like Titanium, and the availability of abundant amounts of Silicon and Oxygen has led to serious proposals about mining and manufacturing operations in the future for the Moon.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 13 1. Spacecraft Galileo, Voyager, Pioneer visited Jupiter. 2. The interiors of Jupiter and Saturn are filled with hydrogen gas and helium gas in the core. 3. Gases are molecular hydrogen and metallic hydrogen in Jupiter and Saturn and ice and rocks. 4. Compounds hydrogen and deep gaseous atmosphere. Jupiter internal heat from deuterium into helium in the core. 5. Saturn is depleted in hydrogen and helium. Ammonia in Jupiter and Saturn atmospheres 6. Jupiter extra energy the contraction of entire planet from a initial extended cloud of gas and dust produces most of the energy. 7. Circulation patterns extend to very deep layers. Circulation is driven in a rather shallow layer in the visible part of the atmosphere invokes deep convection following a pattern of concentric cylinders. 8. Magnetospheres & radio waves. Radio emissions cause by electrons and ions moving at very high speeds. Larger particles The energy for radio emission from Saturn is from electrons from the impinging solar wind. Chapter 16 The origin of rings and small satellites around Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus. The planetary ring systems have 3 features in common 1. Composed of small particles of different sizes. 2. are close to their planets. 3. Structures appear to be controlled by a few larger objects. Ring origin 1. Break up suggests the rings are the remains of a shattered satellite. 2. Suggests the rings are made of particles that were never able to come together to form a satellite in the first place. Satellite discoveries Galileo discovered the Galilean satellites in 1610 using his own telescope. Jupiter has satellites. Saturn�s satellite is Titan largest satellite discovered in 1655. Jupiter 39 satellites. Saturn 30 satellites. Uranus 21 satellites. Neptune 8 satellites. Ring radiuses 1.8 2.3 2.2 2.5 Ring masses og Jupiter is 10 10 Saturn 10 18 Uranus 10 14 10 12

The Planetary System. The Planets Chapter 14 Uranus magnetosphere similar in size of Saturn�s magnetosphere. Composition of particles is simpler than Saturn�s. Protons and electrons are in Uranus. Magnetic field of Uranus 17.2 hours. Neptune�s rotation 16.8 hours similar to Uranus. 98. rotation around the sun. The planet Pluto with methane. Ice is on surface in 1975. Carbon monoxide & nitrogen on Pluto. Charon orbit around the Sun 112 and Charon is coated with ice and water. Atmospheres are similar. Eccentricity of Pluto orbit have large effect on atmosphere. Chapter 17 Origin of the planetary system. Asteroids and comets crash onto planets bring more material of dirt, dust, ice, rocks. Stars form in a spinning cloud of dust and gas called the solar nebula. Planets, Star formed 4.5 billion years ago. Conservation of angular momentum remains constant as she falls the angular momentum depends on the product of her rate of spin and square of her size in direction perpendicular to her axis of spin. Collapsing cloud becomes smaller denser 3 steps are 1. It�s rate of rotation increases. 2. It flattens into a disk. 3. It heats up near the center. Condensation generates heat. As temperature drops material forms condenses into liquid droplets or solid grains. Solid grains building of planetesimals and planets.

The Planetary System Chapter 5 Asteroids An asteroid is a rocky body in space which may be only a few hundred feet wide or it may be several hundred miles wide. They are considered to be debris left over from the formation of the solar system. Many asteroids orbit the Sun in a region between Mars and Jupiter. This "belt" of asteroids follows a slightly elliptical path as it orbits the Sun in the same direction as the planets. It takes anywhere from three to six Earth years for a complete revolution around the Sun. An asteroid may be pulled out of its orbit by the gravitational pull of a larger object such as a planet. Once an asteroid is captured by the gravitational pull of a planet, it may become a satellite of that planet. Astronomers theorize that is how the two satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, came to orbit that planet. An asteroid is also capable of colliding with a planet resulting in the formation of an impact crater. Some scientists believe that just such an impact in the area of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico started the chain of events which led to the extinction of the dinosaurs here on Earth. Astronomers think that if it were not for the giant planet Jupiter exerting its gravitational force on the asteroids in the belt, the inner planets would be constantly bombarded by large asteroids. The presence of Jupiter actually protects Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars from repeated asteroid collisions! Gaspra and Ida were visited by spacecraft Galileo. Near shoemaker spacecraft visited Mathilde and landed on Eros. Gaspra has fewer craters, and Ida is saturated with craters. Mathilde has largest craters. Eros is primitive composition long ridges scale cracks, solid asteroid. Interior fractured. Chapter 7 The Moon The Moon travels around Earth in an oval orbit at 3680 kilometers per hour. The Moon does not have an atmosphere, so temperatures range from -184 degrees Celsius during its night to 214 degrees Celsius during its day except at the poles where the temperature is a constant -96 degrees Celsius. The Moon is actually a little lopsided due to the lunar crust being thicker on one side than the other. When you look at the Moon, you will see dark and light areas. The dark areas are young plains called maria and are composed of basalt. The basalt flowed in and flooded the area created by a huge impact with an asteroid or comet. The light areas are the highlands, which are mountains that were uplifted as a result of impacts. The lunar surface is covered by a fine-grained soil called "regolith" which results from the constant bombardment of the lunar rocks by small meteorites. Scientists theorize that the Moon was the result of a collision between Earth and an object the size of Mars. One theory states that the debris from the impact was hurtled into space where, due to gravity, it combined. This resulted in the formation of the Moon. The gravitational pull of the Moon on the Earth affects the ocean tides on Earth. The closer the Moon is to Earth, the greater the effect. The time between high tides is about 12 hours and 25 minutes. The phases, or changing appearance, of the Moon depend on its position relative to the position of the Sun. When the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth, the side of the Moon facing the Earth is dark. This is called a "new moon". As the Moon travels eastward in its orbit, more of its sunlit side becomes visible to Earth and the Moon is said to be "waxing". More specifically, the phase after a new moon is called a "waxing crescent" because we can see no more than a quarter of the Moon at this point. As the Moon continues eastward, the Sun, Moon, and Earth form a 90 degree angle and the Moon appears half dark and half light to us here on Earth. This is a "first quarter" phase. After the first quarter phase, more than a quarter of the Moon is visible to us, so it is now in a "waxing gibbous" phase. As the Moon continues its revolution around Earth, the Sun, Earth, and Moon align with the Earth in the middle. The side of the Moon facing Earth is now fully lit. This is called a "full moon" phase. As the Moon travels further around in its orbit, the lit portion of the Moon visible to Earth becomes smaller, so the Moon is now said to be "waning" as it enters the next phase. After the "waning gibbous" phase, the Moon enters the "third quarter" phase where once again the Moon appears half dark and half light from Earth. As it completes its revolution around Earth, the Moon enters a "waning crescent" phase just prior to starting the cycle again as a new moon.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 12 6. The Viking Biology Experiments. Three experiments were to search for microorganisms on Mars. The experiments called the gas exchange GEX, the labeled release LR, and the Pyrolitic release PR all reflect scientific experience with life on Earth. Experiments were designed to measure the processes of microorganism derive their energy from oxidation removal of hydrogen combination with oxygen and reduction removal of oxygen combination with hydrogen. 7. Noble gases are introduced into a planet�s atmosphere they remain there, don�t combine with the rocks. More or less abundant or how many. Abundances of argon gas, krypton, xenon gas, show some pattern in atmospheres of Mars and Earth. Chapter 13 1. Jupiter and Saturn were visited by spacecraft Pioneers 10 and 11 launch in 1972. Arrive at Jupiter in 1974 & 1975. Voyagers 1 & 2 launched in 1977. Galileo Orbiter and atmospheric probe arrived at Jupiter in 1995. Voyagers 1 & 2 November 1980 and August 1981. 4 hours for signal to reach Earth. 2. Jupiter and Saturn are giant planets because made mostly of hydrogen gas and helium gas.

The Planetary System Chapter 8 The Moon and Mercury The origin of the Moon The Moon is like a desert with plains, mountains, and valleys. It also has many craters, which are holes created when space objects hit the Moon's surface at a high speed. There is no air to breathe on the Moon. Recently water ice was discovered at the poles (or top and bottom) of the Moon. The ice is buried beneath some of the dust of the Moon's surface. Scientists think the ice may be left over from a comet that once collided with the Moon. The Moon travels around the Earth in an oval shaped orbit. Scientists think the Moon was formed long ago when Earth collided with another space object. The collision may have caused a big chunk of rocky material to be thrown out into space to form the Moon. The Moon is a little lopsided. Its crust is thicker on one side than the other. The Moon is much smaller than the Earth. However, the pull of its gravity can still affect the Earth's ocean tides. We always see the same side of the Moon from Earth. You have to go into space to see the other side. The origin of Mercury Mercury is the second smallest planet in our solar system. Only the planet Pluto is smaller. Mercury is about the same size as our Moon. It is very close to the Sun. Mercury travels around the Sun faster than any other planet. Mercury can only be seen from Earth just before sunrise or just after sunset. because Mercury always appears near the Sun when viewed from Earth. Mercury has a very thin atmosphere. Like our Moon, the planet Mercury is heavily cratered, showing impact scars from meteor bombardments. Old lava flows and quake faults also mark its crust. Mercury has very little atmosphere, scientists have found water ice inside deep craters at the north and south poles of this hot little globe. Mercury has been visited by only one spacecraft, Mariner 10, which flew by the planet three times in 1974 and 1975. Mariner 10 mapped about half of the planet's surface, during which time a thin atmosphere and a magnetic field were discovered.

Our Sun, the 5-billion-year-old star that sustains life here on Earth, powers photosynthesis in green plants and is ultimately the source of all food and fossil fuel. The connection and interaction between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, currents in the oceans, weather and climate. With a core reaching a fiery 16 million degrees Kelvin (nearly 29 million degrees Fahrenheit), the Sun's surface temperature is so hot that no solid or liquid can exist there. Luckily for humans, Earth is a little less than 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) away from the Sun. Although its interior has been modified by nuclear reactions, the outer layers of the Sun are composed of very nearly the same material as the original solar nebula.

The Planetary System Earth and Venus Chapter 9 If Venus, Earth and Mars all started out with oceans full of organic chemicals, this "soup" might have cooked up carbon-based life on any of them. If life formed anywhere on the early terrestrial planets (and it seems that it did...), it could have spread to all of them. In their early years, the planets may have been highly contagious. Their earliest environments were often disturbed by large impacts from the heavy bombardment that marked the final stage of planet growth. Such events can launch rocks off of one planet that eventually land on another. We know that this happens because we have already found about a dozen meteorites from Mars here on Earth. Venus might have been the best place of all for organic life to get started. Our sun has been heating up steadily over the 4.5 billion years of its existence. Sunlight was dimmer by about 40 percent when the sun and the planets were very young. This means that, depending on the details of atmospheric evolution, all of the terrestrial planets might have been a lot colder. Earth and Mars may have been too cold, and Venus "just right" for life of the water-borne variety. Venus is like the Earth in many ways. It is nearly the same size and it has a similar bulk composition. Of all the planets, its orbit around the sun is the closest to EarthUs orbit. It has both clouds and a thick atmosphere. Like the Earth, it even has a fairly young surface age (~500 million years). Despite these basic similarities, however, Venus differs greatly from the Earth in detail. First, since the atmosphere is mostly CO2, Venus has an extreme Greenhouse Effect. In fact, the surface temperature on Venus is about 470!C (about 880!F). Further, the surface air pressure on Venus is about 90 times greater than that at sealevel on Earth. This is roughly equivalent to the WATER pressure on Earth one kilometer beneath the oceanUs surface. These surface conditions have two effects. (1) There is no water on the surface of Venus. Indeed, there is almost no water in the air, either. The clouds are mostly made of sulfuric acid and they are much, much higher than most clouds on the Earth. (2) Due to the high atmospheric pressure, the winds on Venus are also relatively slow. Thus, neither wind nor rain can really affect the surface on Venus. As a result, volcanic features will look freshly formed for a long time. Venus shows no evidence for plate tectonics. There are no long, linear volcano chains. There are no clear subduction zones. rifts are common, none look like the mid-ocean ridges on Earth. Also, continent-like regions are rare, and show none of the jigsaw fits seen on Earth. Thus, where volcanism on Earth mostly marks plate boundaries and plate movements, volcanism on Venus is much more regional and much less organized. Third, volcanism on Venus shows fewer eruptive styles than on the Earth. Almost all volcanism on Venus seems to involve fluid lava flows. There is no sign of explosive, ash-forming eruptions on Venus, and little evidence for the eruption of sludgy, viscous lavas. This may reflect a combination of several effects. First, due to the high air pressure, venusian lavas need much higher gas contents than Earth lavas to erupt explosively. Second, the main gas driving lava explosions on Earth is water, which is in very short supply on Venus. Lastly, many viscous lavas and explosive eruptions on Earth occur near plate subduction zones. Thus, the lack of subduction zones should also reduce the likelihood of such eruptions on Venus. Venus has more volcanoes than any other planet in the solar system. Over 1600 major volcanoes or volcanic features are known.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 6 Comets

Comets show distincts jets of escaping gas and dust. Gases released from the nucleus of a comet are quickly broken down by ultraviolet sunlight to create molecular fragments OH, CH, NH. Water vapor released from the nucleus are quickly ionized to H2O then broken down by the warm sunlight to Hydrogen. CH methane.

Gases expand gas are ionized and caught by solar wind and form a comet tail. Comets contain ice, water and evaporates under solar heating to generate atmosphere. Halley nucleus. Borrely nucleus 8 km long 3-4 km wide terrain is rough jumbled. 12 k min size for some smaller comets. Comets are lumps of ice and dust that periodically come into the center of the solar system from somewhere in its outer reaches, and that some comets make repeated trips. When comets get close enough to the Sun, heat makes them start to evaporate. Jets of gas and dust form long tails that we can see from Earth. These tails can sometimes be millions of miles long. In 1985-1986, a spacecraft called Giotto visited the most famous comet, Halley, on Halley's most recent visit to the inner solar system. In 1994, comet Shoemaker-Levy became trapped by the gravity of Jupiter and plunged into Jupiter's atmosphere. The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 15 Jupiter and the Moons of Jupiter. The Moon Io

Io's Surface There are no impact craters on Io. The surface of Io must be younger than a Million years old, and is continually being resurfaced by volcanic activity. Also, the surface is very colorful, mottled with red, yellow, white and orange black markings. The surface composition on Io consists largely of sulfur with deposits of frozen sulfur dioxide. The surface on Io is mostly flat plains rising no more than 1 km. Moutain ranges up to 9 km high have also been observed. Two spacecraft, Pioneer 10 and 11, to Jupiter in the early 1970's. Europa. Voyager pictures show pale-yellow icy plains with red and brown mottled regions. Long cracks run for thousands of kilometers over the surface. On Earth, these cracks would indicate such features as tall mountains and deep canyons. But none of these features are higher than a few kilometers on Europa, making it one of the smoothest objects in our Solar System.

Low ridges, straight and curved, crisscross the surface. Flows and fractures, pits and frozen puddles. Comparison to Our Moon Earth's Moon has young and old craters literally everywhere, which tells us that it has been geologically inactive for more than a billion years. Earth has been impacted at least as many times as the Moon, but Earth's surface has been smoothed by active geological processes such as plate tectonics and volcanic flows, and by constant weathering. Like our Moon, Jupiter's satellites Ganymede and Callisto are heavily cratered � evidence of very old and inactive surfaces. On Europa, however, only a few large craters have been identified. Unless Europa has somehow avoided these impacts, which is unlikely, relatively recent events must have smoothed over the craters. Ganymede is the largest satellite in the solar system with a diameter of 5,268 km (3270 miles). It is larger than Mercury and Pluto, and three-quarters the size of Mars. If Ganymede orbited the Sun instead of orbiting Jupiter, it would easily be classified as a planet.

Composition Ganymede is most likely composed of a rocky core with a water/ice mantle and a crust of rock and ice. Its low density of 1.94 gm/cm3,indicates that the core takes up about 50% of the satellite's diameter. Ganymede's mantle is most likely composed of ice and silicates, and its crust is probably a thick layer of water ice. With a diameter of over 4,800 km (2,985 miles), Callisto is the third largest satellite in the solar system and is almost the size of Mercury. Callisto is the outermost of the Galilean satellites, and orbits beyonds Jupiter's main radiation belts. It has the lowest density of the Galilean satellites (1.86 grams/cubic centimeter). Its interior is probably similar to Ganymede except the inner rocky core is smaller, and this core is surrounded by a large icy mantle. Callisto's surface is the darkest of the Galileans, but it is twice as bright as our own Moon. Callisto is the most heavily cratered object in the solar system. It is thought to be a long dead world, with a nearly complete absence of any geologic activity on its surface. In fact, Callisto is the only body greater than 1000 km in diameter in the solar system that has shown no signs of undergoing any extensive resurfacing since impacts have molded its surface. With a surface age of about 4 billion years, Callisto has the oldest landscape in the solar system.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 5 Meteorites 1. Most of the asteroids are found in the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 2. Measure of size and reflectivity. Measuring the spectra of sunlight reflected from the surface. 3. The size frequency distribution is the 4. Main belt asteroids are Asteroids occupy the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. The asteroids are 2.2 to 3.3 AU from the Sun. Near Earth Asteroids are mostly derived from the main belt. Short life times. Asteroids maybe extinct comets, and asteroids may strike Earth once in awhile. Physical and chemical properties. Asteroids solid surface. 5. Meteorites come from asteroids. A meteorite is a rock survives its fiery passage through the atmosphere as a meteor and strikes the earth. The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 6 Comets 1. Comets are made of dust, ice water. Main belt asteroids are solid objects. Cold. Between Mars and Jupiter. Near Earth Asteroids are asteroids that once in awhile come flying near the earth and sometimes strike the Earth. Comets have a nucleus plasma tail. 1. Comets water ice frozen volatiles. Water vapor, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide. Methanol gas. Comets appearance as seen from the Earth. Once comet is heated by sunlight the comet develops a thin atmosphere. 2. The dirty snowball model is small solid nucleus is composed of equal quantities of ice and ice water, silicate and carbonaceous material in small dust grains. 3. Gases released into space from comet. 4. The atmosphere and tail of a comet are formed when rapid evaporation of the ice under the influence of solar heating leads to the formation of the atmosphere. Relationships between comets and meteors. The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 7 1. The appearance of the moon saturated surface with craters. Highland crust is with more craters and less craters on Lunar maria younger surfaces. 2. Craters are formed when explosions caused by sudden impacts of fast moving projectiles. Impact craters came from impact cratering and surface modified by impact cratering and creation of a fine glass rich soil. Volcanic crater is molten lava rising out of crater. 3. Stratigraphy is based on the principle that younger surface features are on top of older ones. A crater overlaps the rim of another. Lunar stratigraphy is the identification of bright craters like Tycho as younger than other lunar features is an example of stratigraphy a geological technique for establishing the relative sequence of geologic events. Crater density is determined by the rate at which asteroids and comes strike the surface and by the age of the surface. Crater retention age is Liquified rock in the interior of a planet is called magma over 3 billion years ago. The moon is a airless sky deep black sky. The surrounding plains are dark brown gray. 4. The standard paradigm for the cratering history of the inner solar system is 5. Volcanism on the moon was active in the past. The magmas formed. Soil on the moon is a fine glass rich soil.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 3 1. Density is important in quantity to measure for a planet because density is a measure of the amount of mass contained in a given volume. Densities of gold is 19 lead is 11 Mercury is 13.6 Steel is 7.8. 2. Rocks are compounds or elements called minerals. Rocks are composed of several different minerals. Minerals are composed of a single substance. 3. No mineral rocks on Earth. Mineral rocks maybe found in some nebulas or on some smaller objects in space. 4. Differentiation is the process of gravitational separation according to density. 5. Gas is Ice is a liquid in a frozen state. Rock is a solid compound. Metal is a element. 6. Origin and loss of planetary atmospheres. For some of the planetary atmospheres their origin. In the case of the Jovian planets, the last stage of their formation involved the gravitational accumulation of huge amounts of hydrogen and other gases. The Terrestrial planets. They presumably formed too slowly to accumulate any gases, taking longer to form than it took. Cometary impact comets are made mostly of volatile materials, albeit in a frozen form: water, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and other compounds of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen with each other, and with the hydrogen which made up the bulk of the Solar Nebula. As a result, a sufficiently large cometary bombardment could presumably deliver large amounts of such icy materials to the planetary surfaces, and depending upon how many comets ran into the Terrestrial planets, during the latter stages of their formation, this might explain most, if not all, of their volatile component atmospheres, and hydrospheres. Atmospheric formation is that gases were somehow trapped within the planets while they were forming, and then released. and through volcanic activity

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 4 1. Meteors Meteorites are rocky and metallic fragments that have reached the Earth and survived their plunge through the atmosphere 2. Primitive objects primitive meteorites originated in or on small bodies that formed directly from dust condensing out of the cooling solar nebula and have chemical compositions unchanged. 3. Accretion as the planetesimals grew the planetesimals began to attract each other gravitationally beginning the process of accretion in which the particles grew by their mutual gravitational attraction. Fragmentation is when impacts break down objects rather than build them up are called fragmentation. 4. Meteorite falls and finds are when meteorites stones fall to the surface on the Earth. Meteorites are different. Meteorites called finds these are objects whose falls are not witnessed which are later recognized to be of extraterrestrial origin. Rock dating provides the absolute time scale for biological evolution on Earth. Determine the time intervals between eras assigned only relative ages on the basis of geological context and fossil remains.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 2 Stars and the Sun. 1. Stars are like the sun similar the great distances of the stars. The interpretation of spectra to permit chemical analysis of the sun, and stars from a distance. Inside of the stars and sun is similar with hydrogen gas and helium gas. Luminosity brightness of stars. 2. The electromagnetic spectrum is the whole array or family of electromagnetic waves ordered by wavelength or by frequency or energy called the spectrum. 3. Compare cosmic abundances of elements in table 2.2. Hydrogen H1 1,000,000. Helium He 2 97,000. 15 Elements. 4. A isotope is any of 2 or more forms of the same element whose atoms all have the same number of protons and different numbers of neutrons. 5. The energy source of the sun is a slow contraction generates power. It is Nuclear energy. Mass create into energy. Hydrogen fusion in the core of the star or the sun. Sun stars internal structure waves and vibrations in the solar atmosphere. 3 Main regions are 1. A hot dense core where nuclear reactions take place. 2. A layer extending more than half way to the surface in which the energy is transported primarily by radiation. And the outer third of the Sun where energy is transported mainly by convection.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 9 1. The Earth as a planet revolves around the sun like the other planets. Liquid Water, Ice, Rocks are on Earth. The size is a small terrestrial planet Earth. The density is The composition of oceans, lakes, streams, deserts on Earth. In Earth�s atmosphere is carbon dioxide gas, hydrogen gas, and oxygen. 2. Evolutionary processes are rapid evolution. Earth is in transition to another transition. Rivers of water flowing into seas and water evaporates from the ocean. The cyclic processes active planet and rapid evolution and change cyclic. Volcanoes deposit lava on the surface. Rock is recycled through new volcanic eruptions. More common on Earth. Creation and destruction of the ocean floor are a cyclic process. 3. Plate tectonics give rise to mountains, volcanoes, deep sea trenches. Plate tectonics is the motion of segments or plates of the outer layer of the Earth. The lithosphere is driven by slow convection in the underlying mantle. 4. Plate tectonics and continental drift. Long time ago the continents and ocean basins were fixed connected together. The continental drift in which the continent slowly moved while the lower crust and ocean basins remained fixed. 5. The ocean crust Sediment washed down from the land is deposited onto continental shelves and moves out into oceans and accumulates. New Crust is formed by basaltic magma rising from below. Continental crust composed mostly of granite is produced more slowly than oceanic basalt.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 10 Venus 1. The interior structures of Earth has oceans of water, deserts, mountains, valleys, north and south poles. Venus rolling volcanic plains, crates, volcanoes, folded mountains. Uranium, thorium, potassium isotopes are found in many rocks on Venus. Mercury has craters, volcanoes. The Moon has extinct craters, volcanoes. 1. The atmospheric structures of the Earth and Venus. Venus produces high surface pressure and temperature on surface of Venus is 740 K while temperatures are under 100 on Earth. 2. Atmospheric circulation patterns of Venus and Earth is different on Venus while Venus is closer to the sun and is in slower rotation. The thickness of atmosphere maintains a constant temperature over the entire surface of atmosphere. The atmosphere of the Earth has oxygen, rain water, carbon dioxide gas. 3. Compositions of atmosphere and clouds are thick and multilayer atmosphere each layer receives radiation and radiates at each layer on Venus. 4. The runaway greenhouse effect lead to the breakdown of water molecules in the upper atmosphere by solar ultraviolet light. Water cannot remain on surface since Venus is closer to the sun and hotter temperatures on Venus.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 11 Mars 1. Compare the Viking landers on Mars with the exploration of the moon. It is not too important to send humans to Mars due to environmental impacts. 2. The surface of Mars and Venus Visible polar caps, Mars shares many characteristics with Earth. The polar caps and surface markings exhibit seasonal changes. The atmosphere of Mars is 95% CO2, 3%N2, 0.01 mm of precipitable H2O vapor. The surface pressure is 1/150 Atm. Clouds - CO2 ice dominates at higher altitudes and latitudes, while H2O ice is present at lower altitude and latitudes. Occasionally dust storms are visible. Venus is a planet whose size and mass are similar to that of the Earth. Being covered with clouds. Venus suffers from an extreme greenhouse effect. It causes it to be hotter than Mercury, even though it is farther from the Sun and more reflective. Radiation from the Sun reaches the top of the planet's atmosphere, where some of the radiation may be reflected back outward into space by clouds and scattering by individual molecules and other particles. 3. The ages of the surfaces of Mars and geologic features of Tharsis volcanoes. Compare the impact creates on Mars are The Surface of Mars is a number of different topological features on the surface of the planet: Craters Many are flat-bottomed. They are often eroded. They are found mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. Venus and Mars have craters as well as features that have been created by geological processes.Venus is geologically active having many volcanos across the entire surface. Mars no longer has much geological activity. But has many features that are clearly do to an active surface in the past. And The Moon Venus Earth Compare volcanic features on Mars Volcanoes. Mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Mostly in the Tharsis region. They are Shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes on Mars look same and are larger. Earth Moon

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 14 1. Uranus was discovered accidentally. 2. The discovery of Pluto with the discoveries of Uranus and Neptune. Pluto was discovered with theoretical work and was found by a careful observational search. Pluto is far too small to have perturbed the motions of other planets in a measurable way. Neptune involved theoretical predictions based on gravitational theory and mathematical techniques. 3. No. The compositions are different on Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune Uranus and Neptune are composed primarily of common ices mixed with silicates and metals. Uranus' atmosphere is made up of hydrogen, helium, and methane. The temperature in the upper atmosphere is very cold. Neptune and Uranus are very much alike. They are both large gas planets that look like big blue-green balls in the sky. Neptune has winds in its atmosphere which blow at over 2000 kilometers per hour! This planet has large, dark circles on its surface which astronomers believe to be storms. Neptune has two thick and two thin rings which surround it. Neptune also has eight moons. Four of these moons orbit the planet within the rings. One of Neptune's moons, Triton, orbits the planet in a direction opposite that of the seven other moons. Due to Pluto's unusual elliptical shaped orbit, Neptune is actually the farthest planet from the Sun for a 20 year period out of every 248 Earth years. The cold methane gas is what gives Uranus its blue green color. The rapid rotation of Uranus causes winds up to 600 kilometers per hour to blow in its atmosphere. Uranus has eleven known rings which contain dark, boulder-sized particles. Uranus has at least 21 moons. Jupiter is a large gas planet whose clouds change colors daily. This planet is made mostly of hydrogen and helium gases. Jupiter gives off two times more heat than it gets from the Sun. It shines very brightly in the night sky for nine months of the year when it is closest to Earth. Huge areas of swirling gases can be found in Jupiter's atmosphere. The largest swirling area of gas is called the Great Red Spot. Scientists believe this is a large hurricane-like storm which has lasted for hundreds of years. Large bolts of lightning have also been seen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Pictures taken by space probes have shown thin rings around Jupiter. Jupiter has sixteen known moons. Saturn is a very large gas planet which spins very rapidly on its axis. It spins so fast that it flattens out the top and the bottom of the planet. The fast spin also causes Saturn to bulge at its equator. Saturn's atmosphere has winds which can blow at over 1800 kilometers per hour! The white spots on Saturn are believed to be powerful storms. Saturn is surrounded by over 1000 rings made of ice and dust. Some of the rings are very thin and some are very thick. The size of the particles in the rings range from pebble-size to house-size. The particles came from the destruction of moons circling the planet. As comets and meteorites smashed the moons, Saturn's gravitational pull shaped the particles into rings. Saturn has at least 30 moons. Some of these moons orbit the planet within the rings, creating gaps in the rings.

The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 16 Satellites and Ring Systems; Rings made of small particles. Saturn has rings and Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune. Regular and irregular moons. Neptune�s Moon Triton is irregular. The irregular satellites moons have orbits resembling comets, asteroids around the sun. Galileo discovered the Galilean satellites in 1610. 1975-1990 Voyager spacecraft visited planets. The moon Iapetus dark leading hemisphere and a bright trailing hemisphere, bright side with water ice reflective 50% and dark side is covered with black material. Organic carbonaceous reflects 3% of sunlight. 6. Rings of Uranus and Neptune. Most of 10 rings of Uranus are nearly circular and narrow 10km wide. A arc or a satellite would block the light of the star on only one side of the planet. 7. 8. Shepherd satellites in keeping the particles of the F ring narrowly confined. Generates the braids in F ring. Embedded satellites gaps by gravitational herding effect a small satellite could sweep clear a much wider than it�s diameter. Interactions between rings and satellites generates spiral waves patterns. 9. Tidal stability limit is Narrow eccentric rings. Embedded satellites cause scalloped edges in cassini division result of waves generated in bounding ring material. The Planetary System The Planets Chapter 14 Neptune experiences seasons similar to seasons on Earth. Neptune�s seasons are 165 times longer than ours. Neptune�s period of revolution is 165 years. One pole receives some illumination from the sun while the other pole is in darkness. Neptune�s Great Dark Spot occurs in the southern hemisphere. Winds on Neptune. Earth and Neptune are blue white planets. Neptune frozen and methane in clouds.

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